Final_Exam_Answer_Key__Both_Forms_ - 1) n increase in...

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Unformatted text preview: 1) n increase in alveolar ventilation to match the demands of increased metabolic activity in the cells is called A ________. A) ypoventilation h B) ypopnea h C) yspnea d D) yperventilation h E) yperpnea h 2) hich of the following statements is true of a rightward shift in the hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve? W A) emoglobin unloading of oxygen is increased. H B) rightward shift usually occurs in active tissue. A C) ffinity for oxygen is decreased. A D) he P50 is increased t E) ll of the above a W 3) hich of the following is the best estimate of the change in O2 saturation of blood when the PO2 decreases from 40 to 15 mm Hg? A) rom 75% to 20% f B) 5 ml 2 C) rom 98% to 75% f D) 5 ml 1 E) rom 99% to 40% f 4) ithin an erythrocyte, the conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate is prevented from reaching equilibrium by the W ________. A) bsence of a nucleus a B) emperature of the body t C) resence of oxygen p D) fflux of bicarbonate from the erythrocyte via the chloride shift e E) resence of hydrogen ions p T 5) he Haldane effect is best described as: A) decreased blood PO2 leads to decreased P50 B) increased blood PCO2 leads to increased binding of O2 to hemoglobin C) decreased blood PO2 leads to decreased binding of O2 to Hb D) increased blood PCO2 leads to increased blood HCO3- concentration E) decreased blood PO2 leads to increased binding of CO2 to Hb 6) primarily through the effect of CO2 on ________. Chemoreceptors respond to changes in A) arbonic acid concentration c B) ydrogen ion concentration h C) emoglobin concentration h D) icarbonate concentration b E) 7) change in the ratio of bicarbonate to carbon dioxide concentration in the blood will ________. A A) hange blood pH c B) hange blood potassium concentration c C) ause a bronchodilation c D) ause a vasodilation of systemic arterioles c E) hange blood chloride concentration c 8) espite being less than 1% of body weight, the kidneys receive ________ of resting cardiac output. D A) % 5 B) % 1 C) 5% 1 D) 0% 2 E) 5% 3 9) fter fluid passes through the entire proximal tubule of the __________, the fluid will enter the ________. A A) owmans capsule, juxtaglomerular apparatus B B) ephron, loop of Henle n C) enal pelvis, collecting duct r D) onnecting duct, renal papilla c E) inor calyx, glomerulus m 10) hat is the process whereby protein-free plasma moves by bulk flow from the glomerulus into Bowmans W capsules? A) ecretion s B) lomerular filtration g C) eabsorption r D) bsorption a E) xcretion e 11) he filtered load of any freely filtered solute can be increased by ________. T A) ncreasing the plasma concentration of the solute i B) ncreasing the rate of secretion i C) ncreasing the glomerular filtration rate i D) ncreasing renal plasma flow i E) oth A and C b 12) n tubuloglomerular feedback, an increase in glomerular filtration rate would increase the ________, thereby I stimulating the release of a paracrine factor from the macula densa that would ________. A) low of tubular fluid : constrict the efferent arteriole f B) low of tubular fluid : constrict the afferent arteriole f C) tretch of afferent arteriolar smooth muscle : constrict the afferent arteriole s D) fferent arteriolar pressure : increase filtrate flow a E) low of tubular fluid : increase glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure f 13) hen the solute concentration is high enough in the lumen of the renal tubules such that all of the carrier W proteins or pumps are occupied, the system is operating at ________. A) iffusional saturation d B) ransport maximum t C) ubular threshold t D) enal threshold r E) ubular maximum t 14) y the time filtrate reaches the loop of Henle, about ________ of the sodium and water has been removed. B A) 00% 1 B) 0% 5 C) % 1 D) 0% 9 E) 0% 7 15) ubular epithelial cells of the distal tubule contain receptors for ________, which stimulates sodium T reabsorption. A) enin r B) rythropoietin e C) ldosterone a D) trial natriuretic peptide a E) ntidiuretic hormone a W 16) hich of the following regions of the nephron is permeable to H2O even when ADH is not present? A) ollecting duct c t B) hick ascending limb of the loop of Henle C) hin ascending limb of the loop of Henle t D) ate distal tubule l E) roximal tubule p 17) f the amount of solute excreted per minute is greater than the filtered load, then clearance for this solute I ________. A) s equal to renal blood flow i B) s lower than the renal threshold i C) ust be equal to renal plasma flow m D) annot be measured c E) s greater than glomerular filtration rate i 18) hich of the following occurs during micturition? W A) uscles of the internal urethral sphincter relax. M B) uscles of the external urethral sphincter relax. M C) he detrusor muscles contract. T D) oth A and B b E) ll of the above a 19) hich of the following comparisons of osmolarity within the kidneys is correct? W A) smolarity of the descending limb of the loop of Henle is greater than that of the ascending limb. O B) he fluid in the proximal tubule is iso-osmotic with cortical interstitial fluid. T C) smolarity of the descending limb of the loop of Henle is iso-osmotic with the medullary interstitial O fluid. D) oth A and C b E) ll of the above a 20) iven: Plasma concentration of inulin = 1.4 mg/ml, urine concentration of inulin = 280 mg/ml, rate of urine G flow = 1 renal blood flow = 1,000 ml/min, hematocrit = 45%. With this information, glomerular filtration rate equals ml/min, _________, and the filtration fraction equals ___________. A) 92 ml/min, 0.713 3 B) 00 ml/min, 0.444 2 C) 40 ml/min, 0.20 1 D) 00 ml/min, 0.364 2 E) 40, 0.255 1 21) hen the distal tubule and collecting duct are highly permeable to water because of ADH, the filtrate W becomes iso-osmotic with ________ and thereby the volume of filtrate ________. A) arly distal tubule : increases e B) arly distal tubule : decreases e C) edullary interstitial fluid : decreases m D) edullary interstitial fluid : remains the same m E) arly distal tubule : remains the same e 22) hich of the following is NOT one of the functions of angiotensin II? W A) timulate renin secretion s B) timulate aldosterone secretion s C) timulate antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion s D) asoconstriction v E) ncreased thirst i 23) hat stimulates atrial natriuretic peptide release? W A) enin r B) istension of the atrial wall due to an increase in blood pressure d C) hanges in the concentration of sodium in the blood of the atrium c D) istension of the atrial wall due to an increase in plasma volume d E) hanges in the concentration of potassium in the blood of the atrium c 24) hich of the following is NOT a response to a decrease in blood volume? W A) ncreased sympathetic activity i B) ncreased angiotensin II production i C) ncreased ADH release i D) ncreased epinephrine secretion i E) ecreased renin secretion d 25) he most rapid defense against changes in blood pH involves ________. T A) enal compensation r B) ardiac compensation c C) epatic compensation h D) uffering of hydrogen ions b E) espiratory compensation r 26) he normal source of the new bicarbonate in the late distal tubule and collecting ducts is ________. T A) arbon dioxide from the system circulation c B) atabolism of glutamine c C) atabolism of lysine c D) arbon monoxide produced in the distal tubule c E) arbon dioxide produced by the tubule cells c 27) hich of the following is NOT a basic process of the gastrointestinal system? W A) bsorption a B) igestion d C) iltration f D) otility m E) ecretion s 28) hich of the following is the correct order of the layers of the gastrointestinal tract wall, from lumen to W external surface? A) erosa muscularis externa submucosa mucosa s B) ucosa submucosa muscularis externa serosa m C) ucosa submucosa serosa muscularis externa m D) erosa mucosa submucosa muscularis externa s E) ubmucosa mucosa serosa muscularis externa s 29) ells of the mucous membrane of the mucosal layer are classified as ________ if they secrete fluids and C enzymes into the lumen and ________ if they release hormones into the bloodstream. A) xocrine cells : endocrine cells e B) bsorptive cells : endocrine cells a C) ndocrine cells : absorptive cells e D) xocrine cells : absorptive cells e E) ndocrine cells : exocrine cells e 30) he flow of chyme from the stomach to the small intestine is regulated by the ________. T A) ower esophageal sphincter l B) yloric sphincter p C) piglottis e D) lottis g E) astroileal sphincter g 31) _______ cells function to secrete hydrogen ions into the lumen of the stomach. _ A) eck N B) oblet G C) G D) arietal P E) hief C 32) o increase the absorptive efficiency of the small intestine, the surface area of the mucosa is increased by the T presence of folds in the wall called ________, and projections of the cell membrane called ________. A) illi : microvillil v B) icrovilli : lacteals m C) ugae : lacteals r D) acteals : rugae l E) icrovilli : villi m 33) hich of the following secretes a bicarbonate-rich fluid? W A) ancreas p B) iver l C) astric glands g D) oth A and B b E) ll of the above a 34) he absorption of glucose involves ________ across the apical membrane and ________ across the basolateral T membrane. A) imple diffusion : facilitated diffusion s B) econdary active transport : facilitated diffusion s C) econdary active transport : secondary active transport s D) econdary active transport : primary active transport s E) acilitated diffusion: facilitated diffusion f 35) he digestion of proteins begins in the ________ with the activation of ________. T A) tomach : pepsinogen s B) outh : pepsinogen m C) mall intestine : chymotrypsinogen s D) tomach : procarboxypeptidase s E) mall intestine : trypsinogen s 36) mulsification aids in the digestion of fats by ________. E A) ncreasing the number of fat globules i B) ncreasing the number of hydrophobic residues on the surface of the fat globule i C) eginning the process of degrading the triglycerides within the fat globule b D) ncreasing the surface area of the fat globule exposed to enzymes i E) he ability of bile salts to activate lipases that digest fats t 37) astric-phase control of gastrointestinal function refers to its site of origin: ________. G A) he pancreas t B) he intestines t C) he stomach t D) he colon t E) he central nervous system t 38) holecystokinin facilitates digestion of fats by stimulating ________. C A) ile secretion b B) elaxation of the sphincter of Oddi r C) all bladder contraction g D) oth A and C b E) oth B and C b 39) egmentation in the small intestines plays an important role in ________. S A) eleasing pancreatic juices r B) he opening of the pyloric valve t C) ropelling the chyme p D) ixing the chyme m E) eleasing bile from the gall bladder r 40) he secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for ________ in males. T A) ecretion of chemicals from Sertoli cells that stimulate sperm maturation s B) romoting spermatogenesis p C) ecretion of androgens from the Leydig cells s D) rowth of accessory reproductive organs g E) timulating ejaculation s 41) n the uterine cycle, the proliferative phase is promoted by ________, whereas the secretory phase is I promoted by ________. A) SH : LH F B) H : FSH L C) strogen : progesterone e D) rogesterone : estrogen p E) rogesterone : progesterone p 42) he ejection of milk that occurs while the infant is suckling is mediated by ________. T A) ocal reflex-induced myoepithelial cell contraction l B) cetylcholine-induced myoepithelial cell contraction a C) xytocin-induced myoepithelial cell contraction o D) yogenic contraction of myoepithelial cells m E) rolactin-induced myoepithelial cell contraction p 43) ecretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary is stimulated by ________ released from the ________. S A) eleasing hormones : hypothalamus r B) xytocin : hypothalamus o C) nhibiting hormones : posterior pituitary i D) timulating hormones : posterior pituitary s E) ntidiuretic hormone : hypothalamus a 44) hich of the following is a correct example of long loop negative feedback? W A) SH inhibits the release of TRH. T B) H inhibits the release of GHIH. G C) ortisol (or corticosterone) from the adrenal cortex inhibits the release of CRH. C D) SH inhibits the release of GnRH. F E) SH stimulates the release of TRH. T F 45) or an animal living on a balanced energy budget, all of the following are true except: e A) nergy intake = energy output c B) onsumed food energy = absorbed food energy a C) ll of the energy in consumed food is either metabolized, used for production, or excreted a D) bsorbed energy is allocated to production, respiration, and urinary excretion c E) onsumed food energy = energy into production + energy into respiration + (energy in urinary and fecal waste) 46) uring the absorptive state, the primary energy source for most of the body cells is ________. D A) lucose supplied from glycogen g B) mino acids from proteins a C) atty acids recently absorbed into the bloodstream f D) lucose recently absorbed into the bloodstream g E) atty acids from triglycerides f 47) hich of the following is TRUE of the absorptive state (compared to the postabsorptive state)? W A) lycogenesis is increased. G B) nsulin levels are high. I C) ost body cells utilize glucose for energy. M D) oth A and C b E) ll of the above a 48) he glycerol released from the adipocyte from the catabolism of a triglyceride is ________. T A) onverted into glucose in the liver c B) onverted into amino acids in the kidneys c C) sed by skeletal muscle for energy u D) xcreted by the kidneys e E) sed by nervous tissue for energy u 49) hich of the following stimuli does NOT stimulate insulin secretion? W A) ncreased parasympathetic nervous activity i B) ncreased glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide i C) ncreased blood amino acids i D) ncreased blood glucose i E) ncreased epinephrine i 50) uring the postabsorptive state, ________. D A) lood levels of insulin and glucagon both decrease b B) lood levels of insulin decrease, whereas blood levels of glucagon increase b C) lood levels of glucagon increase, whereas insulin levels do not change b D) lood levels of insulin and glucagon both increase b E) lood levels of insulin increase, whereas blood levels of glucagon decrease b 51) uring which phase of the cardiac cycle are all four heart valves open? D A) ll four heart valves are normally NEVER open simultaneously. A B) sovulmetric relaxation i C) entricular ejection v D) sovolumetric contraction i E) entricular filling v 52) hich of the following equations correctly relates flow, pressure, and resistance? W A) low = Pressure - Resistance F B) low = Pressure Resistance F C) ressure = Flow + Resistance P D) esistance = Flow Pressure R E) ressure = Flow Resistance P 53) eins function as ________ reservoirs due to their ________ compliance. V A) ressure : low p B) olume : high v C) ressure : lack of p D) olume : low v E) ressure : high p 54) ean arterial pressure can be increased by all of the following except ________. M A) ecreasing end-diastolic volume d B) ncreasing heart rate i C) ncreasing sympathetic activity i D) ncreasing blood volume i E) ncreasing venous return i 55) he contraction of the diaphragm results in a(n) ________. T A) ecrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore an increase in intra-alveolar pressure d B) ncrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in intra-alveolar pressure i C) ecrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in atmospheric pressure d D) ncrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore an increase in intra-alveolar pressure i E) ecrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in intra-alveolar pressure d W 56) hich of the following occurs by diffusion? m A) ovement of oxygen between the atmosphere and the alveoli m B) ovement of oxygen from pulmonary capillaries to systemic capillaries m C) ovement of carbon dioxide from alveolar air to atmospheric air m D) ovement of oxygen from alveolar air to pulmonary capillaries m E) ovement of carbon dioxide from systemic capillaries to the right ventricle W 57) hen left ventricular cardiac output = 5000 ml/min, what volume of blood flows through the pulmonary circulation every minute? a A) bout 2000 ml/min 5 B) 00 ml/min 5 C) 000 ml/min c D) annot be determined without more information 3 E) 000 ml/min 58) he process of maintaining the internal environment in a state compatible for life is called ________, and it T occurs primarily through ________. A) egative feedback : intrinsic control n B) ntrinsic control : homeostasis i C) ntrinsic control : negative feedback i D) omeostasis : negative feedback h E) ositive feedback : intrinsic control p 59) f a positively charged ion is more concentrated outside the cell, the forces required to balance the chemical I gradient would be directed ________. Thus, the equilibrium potential for this ion would be ________ charged. A) utward : neutrally o B) utward : negatively o C) nward : negatively i D) nward : positively i E) utward : positively o 60) he repolarization phase of the action potential in a neuron is driven by the ________. T A) pening of sodium channels and closure of potassium channels o B) losure of potassium channels c C) pening of sodium channels o D) pening of calcium channels o E) losure of sodium channels and opening of potassium channels c 61) timuli A and B are both suprathreshold touch-sensory stimuli that last for one second, but stimulus A is S stronger. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A) timulus A will cause a higher frequency of action potentials. S B) single action potential will be produced by both stimulus A and stimulus B. The action potentials A produced from each stimulus will be identical in size and duration. C) he action potential produced by stimulus A will be larger than that produced by stimulus B. T D) he action potential produced by stimulus A will be of longer duration than that produced by stimulus T B. E) nly stimulus A can produce an action potential. O 62) rimary active transporters are unique in their ability to couple the movement of an ion directly to ________. P A) ts electrochemical gradient i B) channel a C) nother ions electrochemical gradient a D) TP hydrolysis A E) he membrane potential t 63) cell is placed into a solution that has the same osmolarity as intracellular fluid. However, one of the A substances in this solution is able to diffuse freely across the membrane (the cell does not contain this substance). The solution into which the cell was placed is ________ and over time the cell would__________. A) ypertonic : h swell B) ypotonic : h shrink C) ypertonic : shrink h D) sotonic : stay the same volume i E) ypotonic : h swell 64) s an action potential is propagated away from the axon hillock, propagation continues in one direction only A because ________. A) he region just in front of the action potential is in the relative refractory period t B) he region just behind the action potential is in the relative refractory period t C) he action potential will travel the path of least resistance t D) he region just in front of the action potential is in the absolute refractory period t E) he region just behind the action potential is in the absolute refractory period t 65) he rapid change in membrane potential that occurs when a ligand binds to an ionotropic receptor is because T ________. A) f the large ionic concentration gradient across the membrane o B) he same protein functions as both a neurotransmitter receptor and an ion channel t C) f the rapid gating of the ion channel by G protein o D) f the rapid G protein response that indirectly links receptor to channel o E) f the G protein amplification that causes the rapid channel response o 66) n response to stepping on a nail, the withdrawal reflex causes ________. I A) lexion of the leg on the side of receptor activation f B) lexion of the leg opposite the side of receptor activation f C) xtension of the leg on the side of receptor activation e D) & C B E) one of the above n 67) he frontal lobe contains ________________ . T A) rimary somatosensory cortex necessary for conscious touch perception p B) rimary auditory cortex, necessary for conscious sound percetion p C) rimary motor cortex, necessary for voluntary initiation of skeletal muscle contraction p D) rocas area, necessary for speech comprehension B E) rimary visual cortex, necessary for conscious visual perception p 68) hich of the following is TRUE of photoreceptors in the light (relative to the dark)? W A) GMP levels are more elevated. c B) he photoreceptors are more depolarized. T C) he synaptic terminal is releasing more transmitter. T D) ore sodium channels are open. M E) ess retinal is bound to opsin L 69) uring skeletal muscle contraction, as the muscle shortens, the thick and thin filaments ________. D A) horten s B) o not interact d C) tretch one another s D) lide past one another s E) ondense c 70) hich of the following is a property of isometric skeletal muscle contraction? W A) oad = force generated by muscle l B) oad > force generated by muscle l C) apid lengthening of the muscle r D) apid shortening of the muscle r E) oad < force generated by muscle l 1) E 2) E 3) A 4) D 5) E 6) B 7) A 8) D 9) B 10) B 11) E 12) B 13) B 14) E 15) C 16) E 17) E 18) E 19) E 20) D 21) C 22) A 23) D 24) E 25) D 26) E 27) C 28) B 29) A 30) B 31) D 32) A 33) D 34) B 35) A 36) D 37) C 38) E 39) D 40) C 41) C 42) C 43) A 44) C 45) B 46) D 47) E 48) A 49) E 50) B 51) A 52) E 53) B 54) A 55) B 56) D 57) C 58) D 59) E 60) E 61) A 62) D 63) E 64) E 65) B 66) A 67) C 68) E 69) D 70) B ...
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