Ch. 1 - Chapter 1 Matter Measurement and Problem Solving...

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Chapter 1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving Chemistry: A Molecular Approach , 1 st Ed. Nivaldo Tro 2008, Prentice Hall Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA
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Composition of Matter Atoms and Molecules Scientific Method
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3 Structure Determines Properties the properties of matter are determined by the atoms and molecules that compose it 1. composed of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms 2. colorless, odorless gas 3. incombustible 4. does not bind to hemoglobin carbon dioxide 1. composed of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom 2. colorless, odorless gas 3. burns with a blue flame 4. binds to hemoglobin carbon monoxide
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4 Atoms and Molecules atoms are submicroscopic particles are the fundamental building blocks of all matter molecules two or more atoms attached together attachments are called bonds attachments come in different strengths molecules come in different shapes and patterns Chemistry is the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 5 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge philosophers try to understand the universe by reasoning and thinking about “ideal” behavior scientists try to understand the universe through empirical knowledge gained through observation and experiment
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 6 From Observation to Understanding Hypothesis – a tentative interpretation or explanation for an observation falsifiable – confirmed or refuted by other observations tested by experiments – validated or invalidated when similar observations are consistently made, it can lead to a Scientific Law a statement of a behavior that is always observed summarizes past observations and predicts future ones Law of Conservation of Mass
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 7 From Specific to General Understanding a hypothesis is a potential explanation for a single or small number of observations a theory is a general explanation for the manifestation and behavior of all nature models pinnacle of scientific knowledge validated or invalidated by experiment and observation
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 8 Scientific Method the careful noting and recording of natural phenomena a test of a hypothesis or theory a tentative explanation of a single or small number of natural phenomena a general explanation of natural phenomena a generally observed natural phenomenon
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Classification of Matter States of Matter Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Changes
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10 Classification of Matter matter is anything that has mass and occupies space we can classify matter based on whether it’s solid, liquid, or gas
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 11 Classifying Matter by Physical State
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Ch. 1 - Chapter 1 Matter Measurement and Problem Solving...

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