exam 3 study guide - Exam Three Study Guide CHAPTER 9:...

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Exam Three Study Guide CHAPTER 9: Cognition Cognition- refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating Categories (how we organize the world – what types of categories do we form) o Superordinate: vehicles or colors o Basic: cars or blue o Subordinate: Honda or teal Formal vs natural concept o Formal has rigid rules o Natural develops with experience Prototypes vs exemplars – know how to identify o Prototypes: most typical (“best example”), a summary of instances o Exemplars: actual instance Divergent thinking: generate new ideas quickly Functional fixedness: the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions Mental sets: a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past Reasoning o Deductive (general to specific) vs inductive (specific to general) o Decision making (choosing from alternative) vs judgments (estimating the probability of an event) Algorithms: a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem Heuristics: (shortcut) a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; (guessing or trial and error) o Representative heuristic: judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes, may lead us to ignore other relevant information o Availability heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory, if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common Structured vs. ill-structured problem solving o Structured: clear path to solve, using an algorithm or heuristics o Ill-structured: no algorithm, insight (a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem) is usually needed Confirmation bias: a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence Fixation: the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set Overconfidence: the tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments Belief perseverance: clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
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Exam Three Study Guide Difference between language and communication o Language is a mean for communication; communication encompasses language Grammar and pragmatics Language Acquisition Device – how is it related to nature/nurture o Nature: language acquisition device, innate knowledge of syntax (Chomsky) o Nurture: language develops through interaction with others (Skinner) Milestones of language development o Cooing: 2 months, vowels o Babbling: 4 to 6 months, vowels and consonants o First words: 12 months, first gestures o Word Combinations: 15-18 months, gesture and word combinations
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course ACCT 2102 taught by Professor Clark during the Spring '10 term at Georgia State University, Atlanta.

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exam 3 study guide - Exam Three Study Guide CHAPTER 9:...

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