Lecture 4 posted - more offspring than their environment...

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BIO 311D LECTURE 4 Processes of evolution and adaptation
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Evolution Descent with modification Darwin’s mechanism –Natural Selection
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***Process of evolution – 4 steps*** 1.There is genetically-based variation in the population, due initially to random mutation. 1.In a given environment, individuals with certain genetic-based traits have greater reproductive success than other individuals. 1.Those individuals pass more copies of their alleles into the next generation. 1.As a result, there is a change in allele frequency over time.
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Charles Darwin 1809-1882
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Darwin On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection , 1859.
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Descent with modification
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Darwin’s observations of nature: Observation #1 : Members of a population vary extensively in their characteristics - no two individuals are exactly alike. Observation #2 : Traits are inherited from parents to offspring. Observation #3 : All species are capable to producing
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Unformatted text preview: more offspring than their environment can support. Observation #4: Owing to lack of food or other resources, many of these offspring do not survive. Inference #1 : Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals. Inference #2 : This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in a population over generations. Evidence for evolution 1. Observation of evolutionary changes 2. fossil record 3. Biogeography 4. Homologous structures Vestigial structures Homologous structures 5. Molecular homologies Criticisms of evolution Adaptation Adaptations can be AMAZING! Constraints on adaptations Adaptive peaks and valleys Our keyboard the QWERTY keyboard Further thoughts...
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Lecture 4 posted - more offspring than their environment...

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