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Unformatted text preview: SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY
Drs. S. Auerbach & H. John-Alder SECOND EXAMINATION FORM B
13 November 2006 NAME:_____________________________ Student ID No.__ANSWER KEY_______ Seat Number: _______________________
Students must assume responsibility for maintaining honesty in all work submitted for credit ... . Students are also expected to report incidents of academic dishonesty to the instructor ... . I, __________________________________(name), will not cheat or tolerate those who do. Signature: Date: 1) f damage to the AV node slowed down conduction through this tissue, what would be observed on an I ECG? A) longer PR interval a B) larger P wave a C) wider QRS complex a D) n inverted T wave a E) longer P wave a 2) uring exercise, which of the following tissues receive less blood flow compared to resting conditions? D A) idneys k B) rain b C) eart h D) kin s E) ll of the above a 3) he primary inspiratory muscles are the ________. T A) iaphragm and abdominal muscles d B) xternal and internal intercostals e C) iaphragm and the external and internal intercostals d D) iaphragm and internal intercostals d E) iaphragm and external intercostals d 4) hordae tendinae are strands of connective tissue extending from ________ to ________. C A) emilunar valves : atrial myocardium s B) V valves : papillary muscle A C) nferior vena cava : right atrium i D) tria : ventricle a E) ortic valves : ventricular myocardium a G 5) iven: Resting Tidal Volume = 450 ml; Inspiratory Reserve Volume = 2750 ml; Expiratory Reserve Volume = 1450 ml; Residual Volume = 900 ml. What is the correct value for Vital Capacity?
A) 550 ml 5 B) 100 ml 4 C) 350 ml 2 D) 650 ml 4 E) 200 ml 3 6) iven that the net filtration of fluid out of the capillaries averages about 3 liters per day, how is blood G volume maintained in light of this apparent fluid loss? A) ravity moves the fluid to the lowest point in the body, where the fluid is absorbed. G B) he kidneys are involved in the reabsorption of the remaining fluid. T C) he net filtration is equally balanced by absorption. T D) hile fluid moves out across the capillary, it tends to move inward across veins. W E) luid is returned to the blood as lymphatic fluid by the lymphatic system. F 7) he high compliance of veins allows them to ________. T A) ccommodate large volumes of blood with little change in pressure a B) rovide the driving force for the movement of blood through the vasculature during diastole p C) ct as pressure reservoirs a D) old only small volumes of blood h E) apidly change central venous pressure with small changes in blood volume r 8) hich of the following is the correct order of muscle fiber recruitment from first to last? W A) ast oxidative : fast glycolytic : slow oxidative f B) low oxidative : fast oxidative : fast glycolytic s C) ast glycolytic : slow oxidative : fast oxidative f D) ast glycolytic : fast oxidative : slow oxidative f E) low oxidative : fast glycolytic : fast oxidative s 9) s the intensity of exercise increases, the muscles switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism resulting in A the increased generation of ________. A) TP A B) ater from the electron transport chain w C) atty acid f D) actic acid l E) lucose g 10) hoose the one answer that is false. The effect of surfactant is to: C A) llow pressure to equilibrate among alveoli of different sizes a B) enerally increase the compliance of alveoli g C) llow large alveoli to have greater surface tension than small alveoli a D) enerally decrease compliance of alveoli g E) ecrease surface tension of small alveoli relative to large alveoli d 11) onic current carried by which of the following ions contributes to the spontaneous depolarizaton of I pacemaker cells? A) alcium c B) otassium p C) odium s D) oth A and C b E) ll of the above a 12) hich of the following is an INCORRECT description of a blood vessel type? W A) apillary walls are comprised of only two cell layers, minimizing the distance for exchange. C B) he radius of arterioles can be regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic controls. T C) eins have high compliance. V D) rteries are elastic. A E) ost of the blood volume at rest is in the systemic veins. M 13) he binding of calcium to the subunit of troponin will directly result in ________. T A) he movement of tropomyosin, thereby exposing the myosin-binding site on the actin molecule t B) he hydrolysis of ATP t C) he binding of ATP to myosin t D) he movement of tropomyosin, thereby exposing the actin-binding site on the myosin molecule t E) he further release of calcium into the cytoplasm t 14) he effects of epinephrine on vascular resistance are dependent upon the ________. T A) elative distribution of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors r B) oncentration of local metabolites c C) elative distribution of alpha and beta receptors r D) pecific baroreceptor activated (low or high pressure) s E) irection of change in mean arterial pressure d 15) he autonomic nervous system innervates all effector organs and tissues except ________. T A) kin s B) ardiac muscles c C) ndocrine glands e D) isceral organs v E) keletal muscles s 16) hich of the following would NOT result from an increase in ventricular contractility? W A) ncreased stroke volume i B) ncreased proportion of end-diastolic volume that is ejected i C) ncreased ejection fraction i D) ncreased end-diastolic volume i E) ecreased end-systolic volume d 17) hich of the following accurately compares active hyperemia to reactive hyperemia? W A) ne is an increase in blood flow, the other is a decrease. O B) ne involves autoregulation of blood flow, the other utilizes extrinsic factors to control O vasoconstriction. C) ne involves vasodilation, the other vasoconstriction. O D) ne is caused by an increase in metabolites, the other to a decrease in perfusion pressure. O E) ne is caused by increased metabolic activity, the other in response to release of an occlusion to O blood flow. 18) he increase in stroke volume observed in response to activation of the baroreceptors is due to ________. T A) ncreased venous return i B) ncreased heart rate i C) ncreased ventricular contractility i D) oth A and C b E) ll of the above a 19) hich of the following is a property of isometric skeletal muscle contraction? W A) oad is equal to the force generated by muscle l B) apid shortening of the muscle r C) apid lengthening of the muscle r D) oad is less than the force generated by muscle l E) oad is greater than the force generated by muscle l 20) uring skeletal muscle contraction, as the muscle shortens, the thick and thin filaments ________. D A) ondense c B) o not interact d C) horten s D) tretch one another s E) lide past one another s 21) nce a skeletal muscle cell begins to shorten during an isotonic twitch contraction, ________. O A) he muscle will continue to shorten until the force generated by the muscle stops increasing t B) he muscle will stop shortening once the force is greater than the load t C) he amount of force generated by the muscle will start to decrease t D) he amount of force generated by the muscle will remain constant t E) he amount of force generated by the muscle will continue to increase t 22) t rest, what is the relative contribution of the two branches of the autonomic nervous systems to the A regulation of homeostasis? A) The sympathetic branch predominates over the parasympathetic branch. B) The parasympathetic branch predominates. C) he somatic branch predominates T D) nly the sympathetic branch is active. O E) either system is active. N 23) hich of the following statements is TRUE? W A) ntercalated disks contain gap junctions. I B) ntercalated disks are specialized regions of the conduction pathway of the heart responsible for the I rapid conduction through these regions. C) ntercalated disks contain desmosomes. I D) oth A and C b E) ll of the above a 24) he ________ is a thin barrier (0.2 m) that allows for the efficient exchange of gases between the lungs and T the blood by diffusion. A) espiratory membrane r B) ype II alveolar cell t C) ype I alveolar cell t D) ndothelial cell e E) lveolar macrophage a 25) n comparison to the systemic circuit, the pulmonary circuit ________. I A) as greater blood volume h B) s under greater pressure i C) as lower blood flow h D) as lower resistance to blood flow h E) as an equal pressure gradient to drive blood flow h 26) hich of the following is NOT a property of glycolytic fibers as compared to oxidative fibers? W A) igh capacity for lactic acid production h B) oor ability to produce ATP in the absence of oxygen p C) eadily fatiguable r D) bsence of myoglobin a E) ewer capillaries f 27) hich of the following decreases the cytosolic concentration of calcium in cardiac contractile cells? W A) a-ATPase on the sarcoplasmic reticulum C B) a-Ca countertransporter on the plasma membrane N C) a-ATPase on the plasma membrane C D) oth B and C b E) ll of the above a 28) quilibration of intra-pleural pressure and intra-alveolar pressure will lead to ________. E A) ir moving out of the lungs a B) pneumothorax (the lung will collapse) a C) estrictive pulmonary disease r D) hronic obstructive pulmonary disease c E) ir moving into the lungs a 29) he tension produced during skeletal muscle contraction can be increased by ________. T A) ncreasing the frequency of action potentials in the motor neuron innervating the muscle i B) ncreasing the length of the muscle to greater than optimum i C) ecruiting motor units r D) oth A and C b E) ll of the above a 30) hich of the following reflexes maintains posture during the response to painful stimulation of a foot? W A) ithdrawal reflex w B) rossed-extensor reflex c C) uscle spindle stretch reflex m D) upillary light reflex p E) rossed-flexor reflex c 31) nder normal conditions, which Starling forces favor filtration? U A) apillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure c B) apillary hydrostatic pressure and plasma oncotic pressure c C) apillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid oncotic pressure c D) nterstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and plasma oncotic pressure i E) nterstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and interstitital fluid oncotic pressure i 32) here are muscarinic receptors for acetylcholine located? W A) arasympathetic and sympathetic postganglionic cell bodies p B) keletal muscle cells s C) ffector organs of the autonomic nervous system e D) oth A and C b E) oth B and C b 33) n increase in end-diastolic volume will cause which of the following? A A) n increase in cardiac output a B) n increase in heart rate a C) n increase in stroke volume a D) oth A and C b E) ll of the above a 34) uring the cross-bridge cycle, ATP binding to myosin causes ________. D A) he myosin head to attach to actin t B) he myosin head to interact with calcium channels, triggering calcium release from the sarcoplasmic t reticulum C) he myosin head to swing forward pulling actin toward the M line t D) he myosin head to be in its high-energy form t E) he myosin head to detach from actin t 35) hich of the following is TRUE of parasympathetic activity to the heart? W A) -type Ca channels are opened more quickly T B) he rate of spontaneous depolarization in SA nodal cells decreases. T C) ostganglionic neurons release norepinephrine, which binds to nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the SA P node. D) eart rate is increased. H E) A nodal cells are depolarized. S 36) he driving force for blood flow through the systemic circuit is ________. T A) eft ventricular pressure l B) apillary hydrostatic pressure c C) entral venous pressure c D) ean arterial pressure m E) ight atrial pressure r 37) hich of the following is NOT an accurate description of specific muscle fiber types? W A) ast glycolytic fibers produce their ATP by glycolysis. F B) low oxidative fibers are the smallest diameter fibers. S C) ast glycolytic fibers are the largest diameter fibers. F D) low oxidative fibers have a low resistance to fatigue. S E) ast oxidative fibers have a high mitochondrial density. F 38) ith respect to their innervation, individual skeletal muscle fibers (cells) are innervated by ________. W A) single motor neuron a B) ultiple motor neurons, and multiple sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons m C) ultiple motor neurons m D) single motor neuron and a single sympathetic neuron a E) single motor neuron and a single parasympathetic neuron a C 39) hoose the correct ranking (highest to lowest) of partial pressures of oxygen measured in the following locations: I. Dry atmospheric air II. Expired Air III. Air in anatomic dead space at end of inspiration IV. Alveolar Air V. Systemic capillary blood VI. Systemic arterial blood VII. Pulmonary arterial blood VII > IV > VI > V A) I B) II > II > VII > IV
C) I > III > VII > V I I D) > II > VI > V I E) > III > VI > IV 40) he purpose of extrinsic control of arteriolar smooth muscle is to ________. T A) egulate blood flow through specific capillary beds r B) egulate venomotor tone r C) egulate mean arterial pressure r D) egulate stroke volume r E) egulate central venous pressure r 41) uring isovolumetric ventricular relaxation, ________. D A) he semilunar valves are closed t B) he AV valves are closed t C) entricular pressure is decreasing v D) oth A and B b E) ll of the above a 42) n the circulatory system, the largest pressure drop occurs across ________. I A) rterioles a B) apillaries c C) enules v D) rteries a E) eins v 43) he ________ is involved in the control of fine, discrete movements of the extremities. T A) ntrapyramidal tract i B) xtrapyramidal tract e C) halamocorical tract t D) pinothalamic tract s E) yramidal tract p 44) hich of the following variables is NOT directly involved in the regulation of stroke volume? W A) ympathetic nervous activity s B) nd diastolic volume e C) entricular contractility v D) fterload a E) arasympathetic nervous activity p 45) ________, the fundamental repeating unit of the myofibril that gives skeletal muscle its striated A appearance, is bordered by ________. A) arcomere : I bands s B) rossbridge : Z lines c C) arcomere : Z lines s D) arcomere : M lines s E) rossbridge : A bands c 46) hat is a motor unit? W A) muscle fiber and all the motor neurons that innervate it a B) ll the myofibrils in a muscle fiber a C) postganglionic sympathetic neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates a D) motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates a E) ll the muscle fibers in a fascicle a 47) ean arterial pressure can be increased by all of the following except ________. M A) ncreasing venous return i B) ncreasing blood volume i C) ecreasing end-diastolic volume d D) ncreasing sympathetic activity i E) ncreasing heart rate i 48) he increased aortic pressure that occurs during systole reflects a(n) ________. T A) ecreased resistance of the vasculature d B) ncreased resistance of the vasculature i C) ncreased volume of blood in the aorta i D) ecreased volume of blood within the aorta d E) ecreased stiffness of the aorta d 49) s the lungs expand, air moves ________ the lungs and elastic recoil pressure ________. A A) nto: increases i B) nto: decreases i C) nto : does not change i D) ut of : increases o E) ut of: decreases o 50) hich of the following pressures is lower during inspiration than during expiration? W A) ntra-alveolar pressure i B) ranspulmonary pressure t C) ntrapleural pressure i D) oth A and B b E) oth A and C b 1) A 2) A 3) E 4) B 5) D 6) E 7) A 8) B 9) D 10) D 11) D 12) A 13) A 14) C 15) E 16) D 17) E 18) D 19) E 20) E 21) D 22) B 23) D 24) A 25) D 26) B 27) E 28) B 29) D 30) B 31) C 32) C 33) D 34) E 35) B 36) D 37) D 38) A 39) D 40) C 41) E 42) A 43) E 44) E 45) C 46) D 47) C 48) C 49) A 50) E ...
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