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MT__Chapter_13 - Medical Terminology Chapter 13 The Blood...

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Medical Terminology Chapter 13 The Blood System
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Functions of Blood Maintain a constant environment for other tissues of the body Transports nutrients Transports CO2 and O2 Transports waste products Transports hormones Contains wbcs and proteins to fight infection Contains platelets to help blood clot
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Composition of Blood Cells (45%) Erythrocytes Leukocytes Thrombocytes Plasma (55%) Solution of water, proteins, sugar, salts, hormones and vitamins
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Blood Cells
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Origin All blood cells originate in the bone marrow from the same hematopoietic stem cells
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Stem cell
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Differentiation The process by which a stem cell becomes either an erythrocyte, leukocyte or thrombocyte
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Erythrocytes When mature have no nucleus Large surface area for absorption and release of gases Contain hemoglobin Heme is iron containing pigment Globin is a protein Oxyhemoglobin produces the bright red color of blood
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Erythrocytes Live about 120 days in the blood stream Are destroyed by macrophages Heme releases iron and decomposes into the yellow orange pigment bilirubin
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Scleral Icterus
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Erythropoietin Stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
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Leukocytes 7000-9000 per microliter Five types Basophils Eosinophils Neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes
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Basophils Dark staining granules contain heparin and histamine
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Eosinophil Red granules Increase in allergic responses
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Eosinophilia An increased number of eosinophils in the blood Seen in allergic reactions
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Neutrophils Phagocytes that ingest and destroy bacteria Polymorphonuclear
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Lymphocytes Attack foreign matter Produce antibodies
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Monocytes Move into tissues to form macrophages
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Percent in Blood Basophils 1-2 Eosinophils 1-4 Neutrophils 50-70 Lymphocytes 20-40 Monocytes 3-8
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Platelets Formed from megakaryocytes Help the blood to clot
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