MT__Chapter_19 - Medical Terminology Chapter 19 Cancer...

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Medical Terminology Chapter 19 Cancer Medicine ONCOLOGY
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Cancer Disease characterized by unrestrained and excessive growth of cells May occur in any tissue, at any time Incidence goes up with age 1/5 of all deaths in US Women: Lung, breast and colorectal Men: Lung, colorectal and prostate
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Malignant Tumors Compress, invade and ultimately destroy the surrounding normal tissue Spread throughout the body by way of the bloodstream or lymphatic vessels Spread or metastasis may be the cause of death
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Tumors or Neoplasms Masses or growths that arise from normal tissue May be Malignant—capable of invasion and spread or Benign—noninvasive, nonspreading
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Benign vs Malignant Grow slowly Encapsulated Differentiated Do not spread Grow quickly Invasive and infiltrative Dedifferentiated Metastasize
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Carcinogenesis The process of transformation from a normal cell to a cancer cell From damage to DNA
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DNA Controls cell division Controls protein synthesis 40,000 genes Genes are made of nucleotides Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine DNA is copied to RNA
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Cancer cells Reproduce almost continuously Produce abnormal proteins Are anaplastic (DNA stops making codes that allow cells to carry out functions of mature cells)
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Damage to DNA Toxic chemicals Sunlight Tobacco smoke Viruses Radiation Causes a mutation (inheritable change in the DNA)
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Apoptosis Programmed cell death Cancer cells lose this feature
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MT__Chapter_19 - Medical Terminology Chapter 19 Cancer...

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