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Chap02_redacted_landscape - Tro Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Atoms...

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Tro Chapter 2 1 Topics: Elements, Isotopes, Term Symbols; p, n, e- Famous Experiments! The Fun damental Laws of Chemistry Chapter Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Law of Conservation of Mass 2 Antoine Lavoisier 1743-1794 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed Therefore, _________________________ Reaction of Sodium with Chlorine to Make Sodium Chloride 3 7.7 g Na + 11.9 g Cl 2 19.6 g NaCl Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e The mass of sodium and chlorine used is determined by the number of atoms that combine Because only whole atoms combine and atoms are not changed or destroyed in the process, the mass of sodium chloride made must equal the total mass of sodium and chlorine atoms that combine together Law of ____________________ • All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements 4 Joseph Proust 1754-1826 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e
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Tro Chapter 2 2 5 Proportions in Sodium Chloride A 100.0 g sample of sodium chloride contains 39.3 g of sodium and 60.7 g of chlorine A 58.44 g sample of sodium chloride contains 22.99 g of sodium and 35.44 g of chlorine Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e • When two elements (call them A and B) form two different compounds, the masses of B that combine with 1 g of A can be expressed as a ratio of small, whole numbers 6 John Dalton 1766-1844 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e Law of ____________________ Oxides of Carbon 7 • Carbon monoxide contains 1.33 g of oxygen for every 1.00 g of carbon • Carbon dioxide contains 2.67 g of oxygen for every 1.00 g of carbon • Because there are twice as many oxygen atoms per carbon atom in carbon dioxide of in carbon monoxide, the oxygen mass ratio should be 2 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e Dalton s Atomic Theory 8 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e Each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms All atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from atoms of other elements Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form molecules of compounds In a chemical reaction, atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element; they simply rearrange the way they are attached Dalton proposed a theory of matter based on it having ultimate, indivisible particles to explain these laws
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Tro Chapter 2 3 9 Some Notes on Charge Two kinds: + and Opposite charges attract + attracted to Like charges repel + repels + repels Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e To be neutral, something must __________________________ or ________________________ Cathode Ray Tube 10 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e Glass tube containing metal electrodes from which almost all the air has been evacuated
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Lemaster during the Spring '08 term at Boise State.

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Chap02_redacted_landscape - Tro Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Atoms...

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