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Chap03_redacted_TwoParagraphsPerPage - Chapter 3 Molecules...

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2/1/2011 1 Topics: Bonds Nomenclature (formula to name and back again) Mass/Formula/Mole Relationships (Includes mass %) Empirical & Molecular Formula/Data Relationships Writing/Balancing Chemical Equations Chapter Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, & Chemical Equations Chemical Bonds & Types Two general types of bonding between atoms found in compounds are ionic and covalent Ionic bonds result when electrons have been transferred between atoms, resulting in oppositely charged ions that attract each other (e.g., metal & non-metal ions) Covalent bonds result when two atoms share some of their electrons (e.g., when nonmetal atoms bond together) 2 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e Chemical bonds are forces of attraction between atoms The bonding attraction comes from attractions between protons and electrons
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2/1/2011 2 Elements and Compounds Elements combine together to make an almost limitless number of compounds The properties of the compound are totally different from the constituent elements Example: Water Hydrogen Oxygen bp 100 °C -253 °C -183 °C state (RT) liquid gas gas flammability used to explosive needed for extinguish combustion flame 3 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e Formulas Describe Compounds A compound is a distinct substance that is composed of atoms of two or more elements Describe the compound by describing the number and type of each atom in the simplest unit of the compound. (The simplest unit may be a molecule or ions.) Each element is represented by its letter symbol The number of atoms of each element is written to the right of the element as a subscript head2right if there is only one atom, the 1 subscript is not written Polyatomic ions are placed in parentheses if there is more than one Ion the simplest unit of the compound 4 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e
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2/1/2011 3 Representing Compounds with Chemical Formula and Models Compounds are generally represented with a chemical formula or model ; each type is slightly different All chemical formulas and models tell what elements are in the compound 5 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e Types of Formulas: Empirical Formula An empirical formula gives the relative number of atoms of each element in a compound The formulas for ionic compounds are empirical The empirical formula for the ionic compound fluorspar is CaCl 2 . This means that there is 1 Ca 2+ ion for every 2 Cl ions in the compound. The empirical formula for the molecular compound oxalic acid is CHO 2 . This means that there is 1 C atom and 1 H atom for every 2 O atoms in the molecule. The actual molecular formula is C 2 H 2 O 4. 6 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e
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2/1/2011 4 Types of Formulas: Molecular Formula A molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound.
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