Barnes suggests that the unity thesis can be represented as a conjunction of the following two claims: a. Every object instantiates at least one pair of contrary properties. 2200 x 5Φ ( Φ x & Φ′ x ) b. Every pair of contrary properties is coinstantiated in at least one object. 2200Φ 5 x ( Φ x & Φ′ x ) And this is what I shall take it to mean. But what is it for contrary properties to be coinstantiated in an object? One possibility is that it is for the object to manifest both of the opposed properties simultaneously and without qualification. I But if this is Heraclitus’s conclusion, his argument for it is weak. He argues that sea-water can be both pure and polluted since it brings life to fish and death to humans. But if he thinks that sea-water is therefore both pure and polluted, full-stop, he has committed (what Barnes calls) the “fallacy of the dropped qualification.” Sea-water is good for fish and bad for humans , but from this it does not follow that it is both good (simpliciter) and bad (simpliciter). Similarly, he contends that “day and night are one” and “the same thing is both living and dead.”
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course PHILOSOPHY 101 taught by Professor Markelwin during the Summer '09 term at UC Davis.