3 - Each language, rather than having a single underlying...

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Each language, rather than having a single underlying logical form, instead is a kind of game, which is played by its speakers according to rules. The rules vary from game to game. A very simple language game, as described in the earliest sections of the Investigation, co-ordinates the speaking of words with certain commands, thus making the activity of commanding an ineliminable part of the game. This activity is not to be captured by the notion of a logical form. Further, it is impossible to tell from the outside which rules are being followed by those playing a game. Any given pattern of behavior is compatible with any number of rules. In a degenerate example, on a TV sit-com, a dog barks twice after being given a choice of three items to eat. The man offering the food takes the dog to be asking for the second of the stated items. Can we say that the dog is not following a rule? Given all the varieties of language games that might be played, we might look for a common element, a form underlying language games as such. But here Wittgenstein noted that there is no fixed concept of a
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3 - Each language, rather than having a single underlying...

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