7 - Descartes (Meditation 4) had held that sometimes human...

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Descartes (Meditation 4) had held that sometimes human beings are undetermined in the sense that they are indifferent between two alternatives. Hume had said, on the contrary, that humans are always motivated to act by a preference for one thing over another. Who is right? Kant thought that the argument could be best understood by considering the world as a whole, to see whether freedom exists there in any form. The issue revolves around the principle of sufficient reason, which states that whatever happens does so in virtue of a reason why it happens rather than not. On the side of freedom, the argument is that if there were no free acts, there would be no sufficient reason for anything. That is because we could never meet with a happening which does not depend on some other happening. Why did it take place? If a previous happening is given, then the same question could be asked of it, and so on. Reason would never be satisfied; it would never reach a point when it had found a starting point where it would be satisfied. On the side of determinism, the denial of freedom, the very same principle is invoked in the opposite way.
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7 - Descartes (Meditation 4) had held that sometimes human...

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