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Adipose2010 - The Adipocyte More Than Just Fat Just 1 Types...

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The Adipocyte: More Than The Adipocyte: More Than Just Fat Just Fat
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Types of Adipose Tissue Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) Heat production White Adipose Tissue (WAT) Develops after birth Subcutaneous and visceral Energy Storage 1
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Obesity Obesity Excess Fat Excess Fat Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Fat cell size Cell number 4
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Brown adipocyte morphology Sell, Int J Biochem and Cell Biol, 2004
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UCP1 Intermembrane space Matrix Inner mitochondria membrane Electron Transport chain H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ ADP + Pi ATP ATP synthase ATP Synthesis Hydrogen ions are pumped into the intermembrane space H+ is pumped back into the matrix as the dissipation of the H+ gradient is coupled to ATP production Coupling of fuel oxidation and ATP synthesis
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UCP1 Intermembrane space Matrix Inner mitochondria membrane Electron Transport chain H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ ADP + Pi ATP ATP synthase Uncoupling of fuel oxidation and ATP synthesis UCP1 H+ H+ Heat UCP1 uses the H+ gradient to generate heat As a result, less ATP is made for every unit of fuel oxidized From FA or glucose oxidation
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Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans Nedergaard et al Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293: E444–E452, 2007.
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2-[18F]fluoro-2-desoxy-glucose (FDG) uptake in brown fat cells.
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Identification and Importance of Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Humans Cypess et al N Engl J Med 2009;360:1509-17.
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Outdoor temp and BAT
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BAT age BMI
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Cold-Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Healthy Men van Marken Lichtenbelt et al N Engl J Med 2009;360:1500-8.
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Activity and Volume of Brown Adipose Tissue, Resting Metabolic Rate Adjusted for Fat-free Mass and Body Temperature under Thermoneutral Conditions (22°C) and after 2 Hours of Cold Exposure (16°C).
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BAT BMI
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Energy Expenditure BMI
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Functional Brown Adipose Tissue in Healthy Adults Virtanen et al N Engl J Med 2009;360:1518-25.
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Cold induction BAT
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Cold warm glucose
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UCP1 is BAT specific
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Adipocytes regulate energy balance by endocrine and non endocrine mechanisms.
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