exam 1 notes - SCIENCE! WAYS OF KNOWING -Tenacity (its...

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SCIENCE! WAYS OF KNOWING -Tenacity (“it’s always been that way”) I. Authority -Sources judged to be expert II. Use of Reason -Charles Pierce: the problem with logic is that it can be used to reach opposing conclusions - A priori method : using reason to reach a conclusion with which others agree (beliefs that develop from logical argument) -No progress toward Truth III. Experience - Empiricism : learning through experience and/or observation and reflection -Social cognition biases (influence perception of experience) - Belief perseverance : holding on to a belied out of a desire to be certain - Confirmation bias : paying attention to things that support our beliefs while ignoring things that contradict our beliefs - Availability heuristic : overestimation of the likeliness of unusual events due to personal IV. SCIENCE (see below) SCIENCE - Science : systematic empiricism; the systematic gathering and evaluation of data to answer questions and/ or to test ideas about the natural world I. Assumptions in Science -Not all events are random - Determinism : events have causes - Statistical determinism : events can be predicted only with probability greater than chance - Discoverability : the causes can be discovered through scientific methods II. Systematic Empiricism (Observations) -Empirical knowledge: knowledge acquired through the senses -Science: systematic empirical knowledge -More systematic than daily observation in that science uses (1) precise definitions of phenomena measured, (2) reliable & valid measuring tools, (3) accepted research methodologies, (4) a system III. Clear Definitions & Operationism -Giving conceptual definitions (ex: defining aggression) - Operationism : defining a concept based on the procedures used to measure/manipulate it (ex: PAR – Performance Appraisal & Review) - Operational definitions - Converging operations : different research using slightly different operational definitions and
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course PSYCH 209 taught by Professor Kerr during the Spring '07 term at University of Washington.

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exam 1 notes - SCIENCE! WAYS OF KNOWING -Tenacity (its...

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