BS 110 Notes 9-10-2010

BS 110 Notes 9-10-2010 - Stop codon enters site of ribosome...

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BS 110 Notes 9/10/2010 Theory of Gene Action 1. Transcription – strands of DNA unwind, 1 strand (or a portion) with nucleotides (bases), with its exposed bases serves as a pattern sequence for mRNA formation. 2. Translation – message of mRNA in its organic base sequence is translated into a sequence of amino acids that form a polypeptide that becomes a protein. Ribsome in the cytoplasm. Transcription Helicases – break hydrogen bonds Only 1 strand is transcribed – called the template strand Initiation sites; transcription factors and start codon (AUG) RNA polymerase II catalyzes process – 5’ to 3’ Stop codons (UAA, UAG, UGA) Exons – regions represented in mRNA; Introns – not represented RNA Polymerase I >> rRNA RNA Polymerase III >> tRNA Translation Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases combine correct amino acids with correct tRNA Initiation complex (Ribosome, mRNA, tRNA) forms. Hydrogen bonds link anticodons and codons of mRNA Peptide bonds link amino acids >>> polypeptide
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Unformatted text preview: Stop codon enters site of ribosome and attaches a release factor and polypeptide separates Protein travels via endoplasmic reticulum to other areas, specified by a signal sequence. Maybe modified. Look at figure 17.13 may be possible questions Mutation Change in the genetic material and recognized by the way a characteristic(s) (phenotype) appear in offspring and differ from parents. May be detrimental, beneficial, or neutral in their effects Two Major groups: o Point mutations involve minor changes in structure of gene. Occur primarily during DNA replication. o Chromosomal mutations involves visible changes in the chromosome number and/or structure during meiosis when the chromosomes are moving. We have 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs. Two groups of cells multicellular organisms o Somatic cells (cell line) skin o Germ cell line formation of sex cells (gametes)...
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BS 110 Notes 9-10-2010 - Stop codon enters site of ribosome...

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