BS 110 Notes 9-10-2010

BS 110 Notes 9-10-2010 - • Stop codon enters site of...

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BS 110 Notes 9/10/2010 Theory of Gene Action 1. Transcription – strands of DNA unwind, 1 strand (or a portion) with nucleotides (bases), with its exposed bases serves as a pattern sequence for mRNA formation. 2. Translation – message of mRNA in its organic base sequence is translated into a sequence of amino acids that form a polypeptide that becomes a protein. Ribsome in the cytoplasm. Transcription Helicases – break hydrogen bonds Only 1 strand is transcribed – called the template strand Initiation sites; transcription factors and start codon (AUG) RNA polymerase II catalyzes process – 5’ to 3’ Stop codons (UAA, UAG, UGA) Exons – regions represented in mRNA; Introns – not represented RNA Polymerase I >> rRNA RNA Polymerase III >> tRNA Translation Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases combine correct amino acids with correct tRNA Initiation complex (Ribosome, mRNA, tRNA) forms. Hydrogen bonds link anticodons and codons of mRNA Peptide bonds link amino acids >>> polypeptide
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Unformatted text preview: • Stop codon enters site of ribosome and attaches a release factor and polypeptide separates • Protein travels via endoplasmic reticulum to other areas, specified by a signal sequence. Maybe modified. • Look at figure 17.13 – may be possible questions Mutation • Change in the genetic material and recognized by the way a characteristic(s) (phenotype) appear in offspring and differ from parents. • May be detrimental, beneficial, or neutral in their effects • Two Major groups: o Point mutations – involve minor changes in structure of gene. Occur primarily during DNA replication. o Chromosomal mutations – involves “visible” changes in the chromosome number and/or structure during meiosis when the chromosomes are moving. We have 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs. • Two groups of cells – multicellular organisms o Somatic cells (cell line) – skin o Germ cell line – formation of sex cells (gametes)...
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course BS 110 taught by Professor S.lawrence during the Fall '07 term at Michigan State University.

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BS 110 Notes 9-10-2010 - • Stop codon enters site of...

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