binder8 - Eggnqm{CS ~ New¥onls [\QUOS 8“ Kinemm‘f ics...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–18. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 12
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 14
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 16
Background image of page 17

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 18
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Eggnqm{CS ~ New¥onls [\QUOS 8“ Kinemm‘f ics '- ‘movijemdt'CJ Aescfiv‘hom 0‘? mo‘tiow 'ciegnafiow 0% 094mm) «re/OcH-gé cum] agcclegdtmm «imwsgd J GIN! Wwi‘f be! f5 éwé ‘ W " Clo [makes Move as 49mg “ \NQA («0365 q, \oo qcce/{eraa‘c ? ' L01 SM Stfl 'CoVC-QE, 00(6 mrons‘Jole QVW We rvo‘oevsfies O? ‘EOV‘CQ cmé 4&9 FelCJLCOHS’QKFS LC‘¥UO€QV\ ‘RV‘CQ CL QCC'CIeV'QJriolA QV‘C 33V?“ Newjtovxls Nome Lam's. of; Mfiiow. 7R2 FNer Law Q‘egc‘M‘beS +K< naiqu SAAQ O? ! moswwx B‘Q Ck ‘50 - on make V10 fowces cure mam/3. I fit elvewr ‘kuOQ S. (Jeqfl uo'lJrR 1]“ EeQaviov O‘P cu BOAR uvfiflr “2w mama/we ‘QNCeS. Ga‘u‘ko (4&4?) 1341??“ 4‘11 moétm Clavdoiomivj‘ 01% 4&1 xith 0&3 mu «mics. - Fvae, $41 ck,ng P‘qu CowsjvaA/CAL QCCC/eVPJ7'QM "" iméavevxckmi 0—9 wag/HLMQSQ, ' bemwa TSwor 05? (Riot exacxfimen/‘E. km.» 0? r “MWVSA vavx'hlzc'wx ‘WR‘cLB ~rer6qvc‘qc\ qs 1K9 circa-frfll scicnllt's‘lé euN 9W ‘ Crec‘r‘ ‘QV lhvcwit'rxa inculos. 34‘ Neufhm (“241-473(7) incovrovvi’tcl Gaéilleo/j L'mlm 5 injfo q fovmddfiom o: (Lynx/mks mane ES Cat/M94 ll “ N eufiowl an MecQu/Aks _ Negajtw's Laws are no\‘ q Pevgccf Jescvkxokew o"— onus mix) re Rem/es. 14 £q{\$ '- I) Mann's qvwl nodei fl? Qoafleom TQQOV‘ ii) Mo‘how at WEAK Ve‘ukkes —-°I Taewmg o Rehx‘hvi 7;) £qu fincumx‘cs we m0$+ infh‘OQiUCP 4100 new cox/«trig “0+ \repm‘eql in k{mma}t‘cs 1 40m 5 ' WVXS5 :Foxrces rovce is q @th (wee‘o+ ‘m all 0% farics. 14- ii» «WAFon omeA —- mos+ Qescvdae 4&2 ARVCCRTKHA in maid; {wads as we“ as his MEN‘LJJQ. In QViY‘LXQ‘aAa/ use CL 430er is useJ 4o dfgCY‘K e O\ -_USQ\ OY‘ ou KH~ - Qwe‘kficgwé $‘3T(Y\ ' mukoE-vr £1“ 5 Q19v+ ‘va 63 0h OLDJedS ‘ +O~K¥ Route ‘95 ' (Waves 3-3 - “(1)0145} ‘RV‘CQS ow MEGA/‘5 V a rses buoxéoufll' ‘pOWCfls ‘ shéimrz‘) SUT‘QCLCQS } 'cn‘clkionai ‘COV‘Qes Above curt a,“ exqmrles 0% “(wind ‘Qovcesum o‘bgc&5 ‘m 43mg" (MORE? ~15va {qcfl olchw Some Pmrces QV‘C uad‘x‘om Mai“- ov- C({s‘hwce “gmflesu "' N0 Ameci’ «Mind r-e uirecl, ‘Yavé‘k j ‘ el’LQCiVOWUUE/w'efihifl. :Fonégmem'fa} :Fovces ‘m Motlruve. ' A quv lkr 09$ i 'OWIA ' HA3 Be‘koeeh aM hth‘es Ravi“ mass ' Mum»? aflmdhve 3 ' Neakcs—k 4‘ka ‘m numb“? ‘ Ex CR T¢v+u‘c\e <—-—>z Erqvficom ? ‘ mo (Ce evoclrlnk mcLSSes' melt‘a7({ energ “46*sz ave UR} \(‘eseqng (axmv-‘A‘ég .f .? Baum-es a!) ,LA E\{&\(ow\qxv\éfic o Afixrqclfiom of V‘Q “km” ‘béh/Oiiem e\e€&w‘c (‘gsctvaes ‘ Exca‘fl’ -Cw WW; 7 a.“ URN \chvoswkafc ~§mrces ‘ cha on ‘m ‘m mm. . Ex: 1 Fav‘hdé {'5 Jreg FQQ+OW ' ACCeI «km? chWizs give em: PQO‘\OV\5 SAN-om ¥€N (.8, 0 pr n dng ‘COV‘LE achm; 5e+coeen nucleons in 0 Wm ctkowx Q bduoeem curks) ' UUJEOLV \‘M e ‘ ‘ AHV‘QCQQVE or we u‘sive (cow Medea! Lquw'w) . Exrvwmae fwfkd: glows) iv) weak Fovce °Seevx i“ ‘wx dth‘ons lbdweevx elemenllqv ’er'hc'ts ' Nefimw (\ecq 3 Y\—\z + efl+D/p—Jeca63. °F€eH qut‘clx oEsevvczl 2° ermelvVea/tfi Vce was c130 KERR” (orc‘hcaua szém‘c J O 1 K 1 mo.“ VS 0k - - E chamgq mekf‘éueb \Ni 3 “750 (Mel ‘v 30 GQV) f“ :F‘Hex :Fovce ' - PRLQ'“ 3cm b/SZE 'E'krés' Ex ‘\’ 1 Te ‘14 e oe- ‘Jra1(~‘0v\«J( Y) E, d %V‘¢LV\ ( OVAA \M‘o‘h‘c‘l masses 39‘] m ERAS ’ Aw\9\°V'$ COY&V‘§\OJ\-E thu' ckngme O} M Traverse +0 SH’Q 33mm. Re‘dfi SI+R fovce‘lo Huk \( (awake git :gcw‘ovx “Um‘u‘ev. (Meujtvoms +Pm+ovxs> ' Roan e N ‘Qeub QQRAVQA \M-A‘evs (FQVUKS'NC) +§Yamkmess {2% Ppavx‘ide —-\ Pack“ 4&3 Tiecise a vime s onéflwoq , kgwe ‘EXis (\Atf no+ e Ne‘ké concldsive 41* + BOOTLPksl (MG Maps is Ma‘kl M 0&0! 09 pew‘méig five. 3 (mesons 3—K 79W. 4va (JRNQ cmi \MQ‘qvmv‘ 0‘? ‘er cN‘u‘vc unworse Qawx Le AescviLeJ 13x} ‘me aolLion o? ‘EOUY ¥ungqmcmfal fiches . R4 it I Fit“ Rw'hclc Shoch :che (admmc —m)c hi3 I0- ISM I mesons/3100143 E\e€\\rovv\ “WK :FO‘J'CC (ratifies) 00 "31 Peak“ Neqk Foxfig (zzPJfimiCB ID—nm ‘0 W? % Gfavljfad‘havmk 4Fovm (“55°55 °° [0.38 (ya/ier 'Rdajfive SJN'QWKW 9:?ngtm/xs j 0’ ls—m q‘omr Cowhnuoos W‘Qo‘rei‘x‘cai mock ovxcfitfmcg 4n (leVEioP a commom (“\(KZRA filescfif'hw ‘m ohms (we ob $i ,Q chek gov a“ ‘EOVCté. 3&4ch a \mbéel won‘t, ma 2 (Roweogé\ Yve ACCJHMAS ubQu‘CR CCUA BQ (Qecketl 3 {leavime 34¢ unac-I'Qeovics pave sQ‘own us 9mm “‘3 Com‘ome E Xed‘ro WT&;C} E\ed‘vo - UOQCLL/ \Meqk LM— (“or (:3 ‘Wa {Loo 'R‘ICQS QQVQ (Wn «Vat Skew uvd r’ ‘x . 4‘ {>5ch mm, qV‘QSQ "atom 0\ Common MBA R43, 2 \NQ{Y\\3{T /$cJa.m/ 6/41 3‘20“) ° Wowk ovx Ehwlavé E\e€1‘vo ~113qu M ' PraifJRJ exi§ccnce (we nedwx cuwmn/(‘S . ‘ Sahara?! 9‘8 1°) \/\11 In‘kzv met‘ial‘e Ve d’ov gowns L—s Nscovmé mew (menu—ms) .. GMT-5 '- gxrmhék 1i“; “£4 Taeovies ~Aam‘sr 4o \mk $3N~ka E [e cirowwkndmk macho - weak \N eqk . § " Mm A-atqk'ejrc L_5 a T >103 RS~ 3:3qu $431ch '° 3 , 3 ‘Wus «so H -C0~r Weevk] Nedkovx‘s ¥§vs+ Lav.) 9-7 “ E.ch ‘Lo A CovChYNES ll Y\ .ljfs $+de 0-9 W’s-k; ov‘ M 0m wx mo‘k‘xovx \v\ ox \ricz‘fl' like (31L rm‘gH’ 4 (we) uMess AV is govn‘ge ll 9A +0 C examée £4711? I. $o~rc es EWfESSCA VLth 1+. __§ ._>, F “‘0 '32} V =- CDWS oar—X, oQ—ixeA (\Neéfiow "(\ZBLQA vn WGNAQ Mos-F koAics ugc nwmau‘a) seeJ 3%? mam \QH“ alone. *‘wesevxce 05% flee}? wax Qoxrces -qi\r Teak, qixr-Jvmcks 68w q QIML o?— +Ri chm‘kevme 0‘9 m6\iow. PaAides in q Vacuum, (dashed LOJIes Perscs’f' iw OK s‘kfik 043 oleovm \mfikiow. A [3ko QM)“ M ‘fovces adhvxc} on 3'\’ is Cautch at ‘R'ee N4L0+owg Leno ==§ Law 05% inew‘kq “Emvxresses We 4em‘wc o-Q MAW; 40 maiqum er‘w mia‘m B'\’a%€ 0Q mo‘hou. 9'? R eeu‘cvwe Ham e 5 Law i3 m3" va‘écl ;Y\ a.“ V‘e‘ceV‘ehCQ fxmmes. Valié i%\ §\oec(a[ ~9mvnes L5- 1n€v+id RQ‘PQTQACE W‘oames I O 0.3% 0 La“ & ;x¢ ' OJ @ Q :0 // /////////// ‘BaM Quek ‘m ‘TOOWCL J(*me ‘ Train qccz‘bfdes 'Rq\\ as 40 La sFoN‘ qmeooxhx qcc demiéeg tum ‘\ ox)qu Ar has no 433w“ qdk‘ma on i+ ((23% iow 'wxvfktiflk \ICQeVflAce ‘Cvnmg'. _ Ta“ R'que \00 (“0 £0‘KGS CLCA~KKE> '14; 1'\~ \)(V‘$IS‘\S in C\ Sk‘a’t‘f OQ‘ DnCCovm mc‘t‘t‘on 13? luev'\’{¢4 RL‘Qchue Fvavnf. An deaf wcgwcvxcc ‘wama \vx Unx'fiovm Ws‘oJ‘ConJ mgk‘ovx pdahw +0 in ‘st'f‘ is also an imrh‘cj ‘qup, A '{lchmuL 'wx accdwroiei m0¥£on W£{«j‘£V( +0 {*Kf ¥im+ is N)“ cm 'wwr‘kiol ‘qumfl. Emfigx \mmSeA chxmfl3 No“ \yxed‘icxl flEQQCJS SYMM Cemlran‘wl ACCH‘L‘COA’KOW (Rojmiioy‘lE mien} = .034 VA‘SI kRevflulr‘xcmy 2 Madon‘s $econcl Lav.) 8"! “ ES’TQLMSQQA *ewl re‘dhomfiflir k€+mfevx ‘onf‘qel acce‘er oC\‘im/\ I q‘né mass. “7er (gm/me ivx mo‘kiom (QCCeltV’cJ‘iovx) {3 fvovo‘C—‘10M6J “xi m6\{\1€ QOV‘CQ 3m V‘eSSecl QMJ {S mccée ‘|V\ 'WVQ ACV€ULFOM 0‘?~ +R£ Pick + XCHQ (SkfadgpA’ lhnt) i“ mQu‘C‘a +efl ‘BV'CQ is ‘ImFregsezl 7 F : m3: : :19 ii Lynmrfl COWCd' $+cCLchd> a U ml“ (L‘scusS (auto! ‘o—é—_X m ' A Ram) OQ “OOLUVQ ' Precise cle-QCvxlltimA 5-9 $0ch OY\\\& \k ‘mer‘kim‘ we‘ewcnce 'Rmmnes. ‘ "0? q E «WA 1K ‘ka Same Siren—FICA). DRAWS: g F = m 00 ‘ h m. Yak} Ll] =N V (Newlmm) “(w—Ht }F: ‘N_ (I\=\\nr\)$:L Mirch m: [51“ ~ : on «MEL/31.34r We ibefiMA—iom o-e— Mass 840 ~$¥m~dar4 0&3 Mass _" Co ‘06 L balmcm . - K50: 3004 foeacv‘ks ce/ «3; m I m5 Wet“ 50A 0‘? wekch s gseelcflkw) V éPrDC 640?? —- '1- Common £2,ng ac}sz ov\ S‘\‘am4q\r<l ch unknown ‘ Masses- - New who“ 0% 4&2 Jame we Lech-cs mu actekraCLe reIa‘hve ~|~o eqCQ 5mg“ V 1“}0 elfev’umcm?‘ M q“ inefhak 'CVQ‘MP. “570% mCL$S( acce(cm:1‘£ov\ 0% 5*ququ ‘m\ a. mass‘ qccdexrrdrzom 0‘3 unknown. F 2 mac -_ msqs m = 93 “"5 Cu (inev'hal uan'h‘” ‘qus '15 Ck measvve o—Q \I‘e$CS afl: Q 1) \ OQ’QNs +u ems (n ("‘3 veloafi I ' Low mq$5€$ Rave Vs oxch eWJ‘CwS U6 3 40 New eovce. ‘. 'Ma$$ is q“ (144(4-‘WC PVOVQV+~B 0% mUH-(T‘. M: ml+ml Sng\(%Osl \‘COM 0% Fovces —=> F3 “ $ufr>0$1 Several ‘fovces -’ How alums H— mm): $‘C‘WL‘\$\{ 0‘; SuFQV‘EosA-i on 1!; sax:ch Semis F ‘ I a L04 +Q\£V\ ‘HZe OLCC~C( {—24} Q mg Luk 1‘ch E E7 + T? «— l 9- Nd’ .2 47.4.} —% CYQX‘I'OIA finale Que ‘- __7 is ref. L‘ Nd’ /\fcso\ltcij Stowe. ‘ \kd‘mr Sum Lquo 6g: NrATUW‘Q 1 Te; ct‘ Ex 4-1_ HomeioN‘xk “osfiom . N<ufiomls Second Lad) ——» F N Cf ‘fi (1. .— m 09* mm 14k; (yew; "\qu 3-H, 3 F1 , E, 00+ $1m0H‘aht003‘ on +€\<’ 54m '6 615 AA Covus, Fovces Proclua e inJiviJUaI a cc el evxhons 3‘11 m: NM is qcm‘efcchon o? (flaked’ ?' FMA nesoHan‘k” Esme FR1 CQADOSQ ox coovéiwik say‘em. .% F] : 7;?4— 0:8 -: = A r} Ox+515 —=: :7 A EzF‘+r; 1‘ 7?+a{g Rh +QM9‘ 7— FRN ,. __b: 9: 35.50 ‘ '7 tn A _ F /\ /\ /\ CL. ~ K - : 3x + [—— YY\ 7/3 as % «0 - 34;! mnng 8-3 Eiqm$\€ ‘6/ A k V «T: Smls ’3 3 A Heck” 403k of mass m: 2“? s\irles on 6x 19m?“ Rake (ARR qvx ‘mi'hax S 99 ’0‘: SMIS. fm'd‘éowJ cows 245 q gong‘lwudf (la/(Me P: 4M éflaoshle +0 mo+i0Iu. How wear 210:5 Me Jt‘sk slit/e be we comm +0 red? v bisk 943 “D ve‘r‘l’icafl mfihoh —~ Ivanpveu Sum a? a.“ «(th Qrces eZua/[S i000. 3‘ (Reese cooviivmlle s‘adem 2 ~43 Q = mg) a: £1} '-' “fly/’0: ~31? ms: TY‘ Q 3 PD KimmJLcs «5‘1— ’\3‘1: 3x135 J; o bJBer/xct 4mvcueql. ’65; = O chvx tlfsk $‘\‘%(35. s : - “DA/Ra = ‘36 (,4sz (31.01“ : $14- Exqu‘e A S\b¥\€ ‘13 inv‘eJ (WU)qu 05" cons+1n+ Bred. ihau m: 100'? R: 1m “0—0: SmIS 'Eoice MOS} \se qdfimk on SJYone? [TBUOCLV‘ls CevOl’cY—J SCIENCE HISTORY SIR ISAAC NEWTON In 1687, a very dour and domineering fellow, a man who lived his life at the brink of a breakdown, wrote one of history’s most important books By Edward Dolnlck Special to the Globe hree hundred years ago this month. one of the strangest men who ever lived produced one of the most impor- tant books ever writ— ten. The man was lsaac Newton. the Eng- lish physicist. He was a genius. a recluse through much of his life. a virgin to his death at 84. an angry. dour. domineering man who could not bear criticism and would not rest until he had publicly hu- miliated anyone who dared to cross him. In the words of the historian Richard Westfall. who devoted 20 years to writing his biography. “Newton was a tortured man. an extremely neurotic personality who teetered always. at least through mid- dle age. on the verge of breakdown." The contemporary descriptions all sound that note. referring again and again to what one of Newton's colleagues called "the most fearful. cautious. and suspicious Temper that I ever knew." But as odd as Newton appeared in his day. to our eyes he is stranger still. Though he is considered the greatest of all scientists. he devoted decades of his life not to physics but to feverish work on al- chemy and on interpreting the Bible. In Newton's era. that made sense — the heav- ens and the Earth were God's work. as was the Bible. and so all could contain His secrets. Year after year. therefore. the most powerful intellect ever knowu la- bored to turn lead into gold and to inter- pret the Book of Revelation. To modems. It is as if Shakespeare had given e ual weight to writing and tojugllng. as i Mi- chelangelo had balanced sculpture and basket-weaving. Newton's masterpiece. and the book that made him famous, is called "Math- ematical Principles of Natural Philos- ophy." Written in Latin lit is referred to as "the Principla“) and dense with math ematics. it is the perfect illustration of Mark Twain‘s definition of a classic as “a book which people praise and don‘t read." According to one historian. "It is doubtful whether any work of comparable influ- ence can ever have been read by so few persons" Because of Newton's morbid fear of controversy. it might never have been written at all. Edmond Halley (of Halley‘s comet fame) took on the delicate task of caioling Newton into making his ideas public. arid even picked up the cost of pub- lishing, though he was far from rich. The Royal Society. which had agreed to pay publication costs. had used up all its mon— ey on a book called "History of Fishes." By most accounts the Principia is the most important scientific book ever writ- ten. lts crowning achievements are the laws of motion and of universal gravita- tion, which spell out how objects move and how they attract one another. Newton explained the motions of the Earth. the moon. and the planets: he explained the path of comets: he explained the tides: he deduced the precise shape of the Earth. Newton's theory is called "universal" because the same laws embrace the com- NEWTON. Page 40 _______________ THE BOSTON GLOBE MONDAY. __._.!-JULY 7 1997 :18 Sol-Tech SCIENCE‘ HEALTH TECHNOLOGY Paul Degen illustration I sums Continued from Page 39 monplace and the cosmos. They explain the path of a pen acciden- tally knocked off a desk. the arc of a baseball lofted to the outfield. the orbit of a planet moving round the sun. the circling of a pair of stars round each other. and the shape of a galaxy made up of countless billions of stars. "The main idea Newton con- tributed." said Dudley Shapere. a philosopher of science at Wake Forest University. “is that there are laws of nature — the universe operates according to ironvbound. deterministic laws." Moreover. Shapere pointed out. Newton showed that man's intel- lect can gasp those laws and can find order in what had seemed chaos. The intellectual confidence born of that triumph helped in- spire the Age of Reason. and it moved Enlightenment thinkers to set about hunting for the laws governing society and other hu- man affairs. “People tried to come up with mathematical theories on how various social forces inter- act." Shapere said. “People were waiting for the Newton of this. and the Newton of that." The theory of gravity was revo- lutionary. more startling in its day than Einstein's theories in his. Three hundred years of inton- ing Newton‘s name have dimmed the surprise - every child knows that apples fall “because of grav- ity” - but contemporaries found the idea hard to grasp. Before Newton. the accepted view was Descartes's. ln Shapere's sum- mary. “the universe was filled with something like a fluid. in which the planets were carried around like corks in a bathtub.“ Newton asked that thinkers abandon that easy-to-picture no- tion. and replace it with a math- ematical abstraction. Newton's gravity is so mysterious - it reaches instantly across empty space. across unimaginable dis- tances - that Descartes's follow- ers condemned it as occult. How can bodies like the Earth and sun act on each other without touch- ing and without anything in be tween? To highlight the mystery. on modern physicist has calcu— lated that "a steel cable of a-thick- ness equallinggthe diameter of the Earth would not be strong enough to hold the lnits orbit." 1 Instant celebrity The Principia made Newton famous at once. .but the theory of gravitation did not win over all its critlw for decades. Even so. New- ton's contemporaries and the gen- erations immediately after hailed him as almost superhuman. “Na- ture and Nature's laws lay hid in Night: God said Let Newton bel' and all was light.“ wrote Alex- ander Pope. For physicists. who can follow mathematical argu- ments in the way that musicians can read a score. the awe that Newton inspired in his contempor- aries remains alive. University of Chicago astro- physicist Subramanyan Chandra- .sekhar. who won a Nobel Prize for work that predicted the existence of black holes. has recently gone through the Principia in detail. “During the past year. I've taken proposition after proposition. written out my own proof. and then compared it with Newton's. In every case. his proofs are in~ credibly concise. there is not a su- perfluous word. The style is impe rial. just written down as if the in- ‘_ Isaac Newton: dour genius3 Japan ese woodcut in 18009. inscription reads: "lsaac Newton was a ‘Z If; Courtesy/Smithsonian institiition profound scholar who was not boastful.“ sights come from Olympus. "And." Chandrasekhar went on. “Newton did it all in 18 months. an incredibly short time. He wrote mathematics the way Mozart wrote symphonies — it just came naturally." Einstein’s opin- ion was similar. “Nature to [New- ton] was an open book. whose let- ters he could read without effort." "if you take great scientists." Chandrasekhar said. “even though they made discoveries that one could not have made oneself. one can imagine making them - people say. ‘l could have done that but I was just stupid.‘ or such things. Normal scientists can think of greater men. and it is not difficult to imagine doing what they did. But i don‘t think it‘s pos- sible for any scientist to imagine what it would have been like to be Newton." How to explain that genius? No one knows. Newton was born Christmas Day. 1642. to a family that West- fall. the University of lndlana his- torian. called "wholly without dis- tinction and wholly without learn- ing." Newton's father could not sign his name. As a schoolboy. he was bright but showed no sign of genius. At 17. he was called home from school to manage his mother's farm. He made a botch of it, his schoolmaster convinced his moth- er that Newton had talent it would be a shame to bury. and he went off to Cambridge University. He had never been more than ten mil from home. lamboy to scientist Within six years. teaching himself from books. the farmboy had become the most important scientist alive. Only one impor~ tan’t thinker. a Cambridge math- ematician. even knew his name. “The young man not yet 24." Watfall wrote. “without benefit of formal instruction. had become the leading mathematician of Eu- rope. And the only one who really mattered. Newton himself. under- stood his poeition clearly enough. He had studied the acknowledged masters. He knew the limits they could not surpass. He had ous— tripped them all. and by fax." The peak years. accordingl) Newton's recollection in hiswold age. were 1665 and 1666. England was ravaged by plague. Cam- bridge was closed. and Newton had returned to his mother's farm. While there. he inventedthe mathematical field called mics— lus. he did much of the work~on the theory of gravity that he devd~ oped years later in the Principal [an apple really did fall). and he made the revolutionary discovery that white light is composed‘of rays of different colors. To schol- ars. the years are the "anni mira- blles.“ the miracle ymrs. 3m Westfall said. in an interview. that though he had devotedv.20 years to his biography. Newtpu had come to seem more and more remote. "The more i learned, the more he seemed to swell anointhe more 1 realized how far heiwaa from he said. "it's not anis- sue of familiarity breeding dyn- tempt. but quite the contrary— fa- miliarity teaching what a gulf there is." T The secret. according to John Maynard Keynes. the economist and a Newton scholar. is that “Newton was capable of greater sustained mental effort thanwaiy man. before or since." Once hobs- gan on a problem. he worked.”- lentlessly. forgetting to eager sleep. “His cat." a Cambridge roommate tells us. “grew verym on the food he left standing on his tray." r t' No distractions were permit Newton had no intemt in recrea- tion or exercise or company. An assistant said he had seen Newton laugh only once in five years. when someone asked him what good it did to study Euclid. n l » Only once. shortly beforehis death. did Newton permit a peek behind the austere mask. “1 don't know what i may seem to,tbe world." he recalled to a friend. "but. as to myself. i seem to have been only like a boy playing oath: seashore and diverting myseki in now and then finding a sin pebble or a prettier shell than on- dinary. whilst the great oceanrol' truth lay all undiscovered befole me." wt»: Edward Dolntck isafreelwags writer living in Maryland. m,“ w . ‘._ ’fi:“\ 7 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course PHYSICS 8.01L taught by Professor Schechter during the Fall '08 term at MIT.

Page1 / 18

binder8 - Eggnqm{CS ~ New¥onls [\QUOS 8“ Kinemm‘f ics...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 18. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online