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l+€ 501? Celebrating Newton T lze legacy and legend of Isaac Newton live on
300 years aﬂer the pee/2mm of as masterpiece, Then ye who now on heavenly nectar fare,
Come celebrate with me in song the name
0f Newton, to the Muses dear; for he
Unlocked the hidden treasures of Truth: in Principal By STEFl WEISBURD ter stage during the Age of Reason and
they inspired the French and American
authors of new governments. “The New
tonian revolution . . . remains one of the So richly through his mind had Phoebus cast most profound revolutions in the history The radiance of his own divinity.
Nearer the gods no mortal may approach
— Edmund Halley‘s preface to
Newton's Principia cience is a search for the essence of
Severything, for the fundamental laws that govern the universe. If
there is one person whose work embod»
ies the spirit and remarkable products of
this pursuit, it is lsaac Newton. His Phi
losophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
(Mathematical Principles of Natural Phi
losophy), commonly known as the Prin
cipia, may well be the most important
document in the history of science. in many ways. the Principia is a blue
print for modern physical science. With
it, Newton created a mathematical frame
work for physics and conceived basic
laws of motion and of universal gravita
tion that unify a diverse array of phe
nomena both in the heavens and on
earth. The revolutionary power of the
Principia and other Newtonian works is
felt to this day: His celestial mechanics
guide the paths of satellites and space
craft, his reflecting telescope is enabling
astronomers to study recently dis—
covered supernovas, his numerical meth—
ods are used in computers and his mathe
matics and approach to solving many
physical problems remain as vital today
as in his time. ' And the Principia has influenced not
only science but Western culture in gen
eral. Newton‘s ideas fostered the develop
ment of social sciences, they played cen JULY 4, 1987 of human thought," writes 1. Bernard
Cohen in Revolution in Science (1985, The
Belknap Press of the Harvard University
Press). This year marks the 300th anniversary
of the Principia’s publication. While Ein
stein‘s relativity theories and quantum
mechanics have shown the limits of New
ton's work (applicable only to the mac—
roscopic, slowly moving physical world),
scientists today are as much in awe of PHILOSOPHI/E NATURALIS P R I N C I P I A
M ATHE MATICA Autore 7 S NEWTO N, Tmr. Coll. ClMalI. S“. Mamet:0!
Frail(Tore Lunﬁaﬂn, 8c Socienris Regains Sodali. [MI’RIMATUR S. P E P Y S, Rtg.Sar. PRESES.
julu 5. [636. LONDINI, )ullu Souqu chm‘ at Typis jofcpbi Slrulrr. Prom: apud plurcs Bibliopulas. Alma MDCLXXXVII. Smithsonian Institution Libraries i The frontispiece of Newtonis Principia. Newton’s accomplishments as Edmund
Halley and others were while Newton
lived. To celebrate his genius, scientists
and historians are gathering at a number
of commemorative symposia planned for
this year in Washington, D.C., Tel Aviv,
Oxford, Holland and elsewhere. in addi
tion, the Smithsonian's National Museum
of American History in Washington, DC,
is hosting a special exhibit on Newton
and the Principia. And in Britain. four
commemorative stamps have been is
sued in Newton's honor. These activities, says physicist Frank
A. Wilczek at the institute for Theoretical
Physics in Santa Barbara. Calif., are “not
only a celebration of Newton, but a cele
bration of [his] whole scientific world
view and method that has led to such
enormous insights" long after his death. istorians are fond of saying that
HNewton was the culmination of the
17th—century scientific revolution.
Newton‘s predecessors, such as Galileo,
Kepler and Hooke. were moving away
from the Aristotelian world view, in which
the behavior of objects is dictated by the
"qualities" they possess; Aristotelians
believed, for example, that a stone fails
because its “nature” necessitates that it
move toward the center of the universe,
or that planets travel in circular orbits
because the circle is a heavenly form.
in contrast. the emerging view during
the scientific revolution was more clearly
rooted in the underlying forces or laws
that can be expressed mathematically
Newton acknowledged that he stood “on
the shoulders of Giants" who developed
this approach. But, writes Paul Theer
man, curator of the Smithsonian exhibit,
“Newton was no mere disciple; his genius 11 ...
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 Physics, Isaac Newton, potential energy function, effective potential energy, fiulUm/‘C S~ CM, cm mamaan rm, YVEO CM Sadiem

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