Sociology Chapter 5

Sociology Chapter 5 - Chapter Five: Culture Culture:...

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Chapter Five: Culture Culture: Generally referring to a shared way of life among the members of a society - Agreement among a society’s members about appropriate behavior, values, beliefs, history and heritage, rituals that should be respected and observed - “What must be done, ought to be done, should be done, may be done, and must not be done” - Cultural Hegemony: The ideas and values of the dominant class are diffused throughout society’s institutions and imposed on society’s less powerful members Norms - Standards that define the obligatory and expected behaviors of people in various situations - Reflect a society’s beliefs about correct and incorrect behaviors - Help society control inappropriate or harmful behaviors - Normative Indoctrination: teaching of norms to individuals - Culture Shock: When people’s unconscious expectations for behavior are suddenly violated - Ethnocentrism: One’s own culture is held to be the standard against which all other cultures are evaluated o Individuals notice the differences between cultures but ranks them as superior and inferior, with his or her own culture as the superior one - Negative Sanctions: Punishments, meted out to violators or norms vary in severity depending on the type of norm being transgressed - There are three types of norms, based on their level or importance to the dominance members of society: folkways, mores and laws o Folkways: The least formal or important norms, involved everyday conventional routines Behaviors that should and shout not occur, specified by society or a social group Sanctions imposed on violators or folkways are often relatively mild expressions of reprimand, Stares, frowns, laughter, throat clearing, or tongue clucking o Mores: More formal and important norms than folkways Includes behaviors defined as those that absolutely must or must not occur Members view these norms as absolute because violation of them is believed to threaten the group’s ability to function or its very existence Violations of mores meet with more sever sanctions than violations of folkways Imposition of shame, ostracism, and sometime exile Include rules governing marriage partner selection o Laws: Constitute the most formal and important norms Vital to dominant interests that they become translated into written, legal formalizations that even nonmembers of the society are required to obey Laws are not firmly based on norms shared by the majority, they are difficult to enforce Laws concern issues that are so important to dominant interests that sanction against violations are formalized in the written legal codes and are likely to be quite severe Values - Assumptions and judgments made about goods, goals, or states of existence that are deemed important, desirable, and worth striving (or dying for) - Do not necessarily determine people’s behavior o Norms define the dominant perception of the ideal behaviors in specific situations o The gap between ideal norms and actual behavior, societies generally feel the needs to impose negative sanctions
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course SOCI 107 taught by Professor Tuchman during the Fall '08 term at UConn.

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Sociology Chapter 5 - Chapter Five: Culture Culture:...

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