Sociology Chapter 6

Sociology Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Socialization...

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Chapter 6: Socialization Socialization as a Learning Process - Human beings are social animals by nature - Socialization: The ongoing process of learning the ways of one’s culture - Individuals acquire and modify their social identities - People learn, accept, reject, and modify the norms, values, assumptions, and expectations of the societies in which they live - Nature vs. Nurture Debate: Debate the relationship between what people inherit and what they learn - Sociobiology: Study of the biological basis of social behavior - Potential for expressing some social traits may be inherited, evidence shows that social characteristics are unlikely to develop without social interaction between individuals as well as between individuals and a variety of social genes - Basic physical needs (food, clothing and water) is not sufficient enough to ensure social development or even physical development of the human being in the absence of human contact Symbolic Interactionist Perspective - Symbolic Interaction: Interpersonal process using language and other symbols, and sanctions o Individuals learn the values and norms of their society They learn how to behave, what to think, and what to expect of others Charles Horton Cooley: The Looking Glass Self - Looking Glass Self: People acquire a sense of who they are by evaluating themselves through the eyes of others, imagining how these others might react to a particular behavior - People see themselves as they believe others see them George Herbert Mead: Significant and Generalized Others - George Herbert Mead: Believed that the child’s primary group relationships (family and peers) were crucial, as “significant others”, to the development of the self - Most important primary group member is the mother (child’s significant other) o Her judgment and approval are critical in developing the child’s sense of self and identity o Anyone who functions as a child’s primary caregiver may be viewed as the significant other - Process of acquiring social identity and self awareness extends to play o Children develop a generalized understanding of how people around them expect them to behave - Generalized Other: Children no longer need the actual presence of known individuals in order to understand their own roles and identities - Play and pretend are highlighted as crucial elements in social environment - Significant Others: People who are vitally important in their daily existence, may appear throughout the life cycle - Self development is reflexive, involving the individual as active agent rather than a passive recipient - Developing self identity involves an interaction between identification by others and self identification, between objectively assigned and subjectively appropriated identity - Socialization process moves in one direction only: The agent socializes the subject Symbolic Interaction as a Dynamic process - Interaction process is a dynamic one: both parties get socialized rather than just one; adults get socialized
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course SOCI 107 taught by Professor Tuchman during the Fall '08 term at UConn.

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Sociology Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Socialization...

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