PNB Lecture Outline 1

PNB Lecture Outline 1 - PNB 2264 Fall 2008 Kimball Lecture...

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PNB 2264 Fall 2008 Kimball Lecture Outline 1 INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I. The Human Organism: A. Definitions. 1. Anatomy: Study of structure 2. Physiology: Study of how living organisms work ― Function and integration, how living organisms work together at various levels of organization B. Hierarchy of organization of the human body - Fig. 1.1.V; 1.2 M 1. Chemical level 2. Cellular level: Cells are the simplest structural units into which complex multicellular organism can be divided and still retain the functions characteristics of life 3. Tissue level: Differentiated cells with similar properties aggregate together 4. Organ level: Combination of nerve tissue or muscle tissue 5. Organ system level: Organs work together 6. Organism C. Body Fluid Compartments: Fig. 1.2V 1. Intracellular fluid (67%) Fluid inside the cells 2. Extracellular fluid (ECF): Fluid present in blood and in the spaces surrounding the cells a. Interstitial fluid (26%) b. Blood plasma (7%) • Extracellular fluid that various blood cells are suspended • Plasma exchanges oxygen, nutrients, wastes and other metabolic products with the interstitial fluid • Concentrations of dissolved substances are virtually identical in the plasma and interstitial fluid, except for protein concentration ― Higher protein concentration in *plasma* than in interstitial fluid ― Compartmentalization is achieved by barriers between the compartments, which determine which substances can move between compartments Accounts for the differences in composition of different compartments Barrier keeps 75-80 percent of the extracelluar fluid in the interstitial compartments and restricts proteins mainly to the plasma II. Homeostasis – Refer to inside back cover of Vander; also fig. 1.3V A. Definition: 1. Examples: homeostatic mechanisms of the major organ systems: see Fig. 1.4V **Dynamic steady state**,
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course PNG 2265 taught by Professor Kimball during the Spring '09 term at UConn.

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PNB Lecture Outline 1 - PNB 2264 Fall 2008 Kimball Lecture...

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