PNB Lecture Outline 4

PNB Lecture Outline 4 - PNB 2264 Fall 2008 Kimball Lecture...

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PNB 2264 Fall 2008 Kimball Lecture Outline 4 CARTILAGE AND BONE TISSUE: CH. 6 McKinley I. Cartilage A. General Structure cartilage is avascular - fig. 4.13 1. Cells a. Chondroblasts: Cells that produce the matrix of cartilage b. Chondrocytes: Mature cells produced and secreted within the matrix and is located in the lacuna 2. Matrix a. Protein fibers b. Ground substance: Gel like and chondroitin sulfates 3. Perichondrium – Dense connective tissue membrane; covers some cartilage structures (e.g., hyaline) B. Classifications: Fig. 6.1 1. Fibrocartilage • Extracellular matrix with numerous thick collagen fibers that help resist tensile (stretching) and compressional (compaction) forces (i.e. shock absorber) 2. Hyaline Cartilage • Provides support through flexibility and resilience (most abundant type of cartilage, smooth and reduces friction in joints), and is surrounded by a dense connective tissue covering called perichondrium 3. Elastic Cartilage • Highly branched elastic fibers (elastin) within its extracellular matrix II. Bone Tissue: A. Introduction: 2 components to bone matrix • Organic (protein): Bone connective tissue • Inorganic (mineral):Sturdy and rigid due to deposition of minerals in matrix called calcification 1. Functions of bone: • Support and protection: Bones prove structural support and serve as a framework for the body • Movement: Bones serve as attachment sites for skeletal muscles, soft tissue and some organs, muscles attached to bones contract and pull on skeleton • Hemopoiesis: Process of blood cell production, blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow, located in some spongy bone. Red bone marrow degenerates and turns in yellow bone marrow (fatty tissue) • Storage of Mineral and energy Reserves: 90% of body’s reserves mineral, calcium and phosphate are stored and released in the bone. ― Calcium is essential for muscle contraction, blood clotting and nerve pulse transmission ― Phosphate is needed for ATP utilization 2. Classes of bone - Fig. 6.3 • Long bones: Greater length than width (i.e. arm, forearm, palm, fingers, thigh, leg, sole of foot, and toes) • Short bones: Length nearly equal to their width, external surfaces are covered by compact bone and interior is composed of spongy bone (carpals- wrist bones and tarsals- foot bones) ―Sesamoid bones:Tiny seed shaped bones along the tendons of some muscles(patella-kneecap) • Flat bones: Flat, thin surface, composed of roughly parallel surfaces of compact bone with a layer of
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