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04 Lesson Biological Bases for Behavior

04 Lesson Biological Bases for Behavior - LESSON Biological...

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Biological Bases for Behavior ASSIGNMENT a. Study text Chapter 3 (pg. 73-78, 81-84, 89-100). b. Complete Concept Checks 3.1 (pg 76). c. Review Questions: Chapter 3 practice test questions 1, 2, 4, 7, and 11 (pg 117). d. Answer IPO 4. LESSON OBJECTIVE 4.1. Explain neural transmissions. 4.2 Summarize the functions of the nervous and endocrine system. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES 4-1. Identify and describe the key parts of the neuron. Neurons: individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information. They permit communication within the nervous system Neurons are very diverse but the drawing above highlights some common features of neurons A. Myelin sheath: an insulating material, myelin made of a high concentration of a white, fatty substance that encases some axons. The myelin sheath speed up the transmission of signals across an axon B. Axon: long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands C. Dendrites: parts of the neuron that are specialized to receive information from other neurons; they are branchlike and collectively are called dendritic trees 4 4 L E S S O N
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D. Soma: cell body contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells; this part doesn’t typically handle any information. E. Terminal buttons : a cluster at the end of an axon which are small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. The chemicals serve as messengers that may activate neighboring neurons. F. Synapses: the point at which neurons interconnect and information is transmitted from one neuron to another. Information is received at the dendrites, is passed through the soma, and along the axon, and it transmitted to the dendrites of other cells at meeting points called synapses 4-2. Explain the action potential and the neural impulse to include synaptic transmission. There is always potential energy in a cell which means that there is a charge imbalance called the resting potential- negative charge when a cell in inactive. An action potential is a very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge that travels along an axon. After the firing of an action potential channels in the cell membrane open and allow the sodium through, balancing the charge. Another action potential cannot occur during the absolute refractory period . Action potential is all or none. The neuron fires or it doesn’t, and weaker stimuli do not produce weaker action potentials. To convey information about the strength of a stimulus, neurons fire more or less rapidly.
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04 Lesson Biological Bases for Behavior - LESSON Biological...

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