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12 Lesson Problem Solving and Decision Making

12 Lesson Problem Solving and Decision Making - LESSON...

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Problem Solving and Decision Making ASSIGNMENT a. Study text Chapter 8 (pg 310-329) b. Read Course Guide Reading 12 – Seven Step Problem Solving Process c. Complete Concept Checks 8.2 (pg 317). d. Review Questions: Chapter 8 practice test questions 6-10,12-14 (pg 333). e. Answer IPO 12 LESSON OBJECTIVES 12.1 Describe barriers to effective problem solving 12.2 Describe and apply selected approaches to problem solving 12.3 Summarize factors that influence decision making 12.4 Explain the process of problem solving PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES 12-1. Define the classes of problems. Problems of inducing structure require people to discover the relations among numbers, words, symbols, or ideas Problems of arrangement require people to arrange the parts of a problem in a way that satisfies some criterion. Problems of transformation require people to carry out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal EXAMPLES ON PAGE 310 12-2. Describe barriers to effective problem solving. a. Describe irrelevant information. Unnecessary information in a problem leads people astray. Effective problem solving requires you to figure out which information is irrelevant. b. Describe functional fixedness. The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use c. Describe mental set. People persist in using problems-solving strategies that have worked in the past d. Describe unnecessary constraints. Effective problem solving requires specifying all the constraints governing a problem without assuming any constraints that don’t exist 12 12 L E S S O N
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Insight occurs when people suddenly discover the correct solution to a problem after struggling with if for a while 12-3. Describe approaches to problem solving. a. Algorithms: a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem b. Heuristics: guiding principle or “rule of thumb” used in solving problems or making descisions (1) Forming sub-goals. Intermediate steps toward a solution (2) Working backward. When working on a problem with a specified end, you may find the solution more readily if you begin at the end and work backward (3) Analogies. Finding a relationship with a previous problem, you might be able to use the solution to a previous problem to solve the current one (4) Changing the representation. Changing the representation highlights the important parts of the problems more efficiently 12-4. Summarize Decision Making a. Summarize how people make choices Additive Strategy : list the attributes that affect decision Rate the desirability of each option Select the one with the largest total Elimination by Aspects: alternatives are eliminated by evaluating them on each attribute in turn b. Describe
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12 Lesson Problem Solving and Decision Making - LESSON...

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