Lecture 8 - Endocrine Pathologies Bio416K Spring 2010(2) LECTURE 9......

Lecture 8 - Endocrine Pathologies Bio416K Spring 2010(2) LECTURE 9......

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Chemical Signals and Target Cell Receptors Cell can respond to chemical signal (e.g., hormone) only if it bears the specific receptor for that signal The chemical signal (ligand) is also known as a first messenger Steroid hormones Peptide/ protein hormones Target cell Second messengers
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Steroid Hormone Action – new protein synthesis
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Peptide Hormone Actions – modify existing proteins (Chapter 6, pages 181-196)
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G protein Adenylate cyclase cAMP PL-C γ DAG and IP 3 Ion Channel Na + , K + , Cl - Most Signal Transduction Uses G-protein Coupled Receptors L Ca 2+
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Signal Amplification (Fig. 6-11, p. 187) Converts one signal molecule into multiple second messenger molecules Enables small amount of signal to create a large effect
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IRS-1 IRS-1 I I = insulin Inactive A Active A Inactive B Active B Inactive C Active C Inactive GLUT4 Active GLUT4 = RESPONSE Glucose Transport Signaling cascade The Insulin Receptor is a Tyrosine Kinase Receptor
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Anatomical Connections Between Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 1. Oxytocin 2. ADH (vasopressin) TRH, CRH, GnRH PRL GH TSH, ACTH
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Hormone Interactions 1) Anatagonism Hormones have opposing effects (e.g., insulin and glucagon) 2) Permissiveness One hormone can not fully exert its effects unless a second hormone is also exerting its effects (e.g., hormones controlling maturation of reproductive system, the gonadotropins and sex steroids require thyroid hormone) 3) Synergism Combined effect of two or more hormones is greater than the sum of the effects of the hormones taken individually (e.g., epinephrine, glucagon and cortisol dramatically elevate blood glucose)
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Synergism of Glucagon, Epinephrine and Cortisol 90
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Endocrine Pathologies Three basic patterns of endocrine pathology: Hormone excess (hypersecretion) Hormone deficiency (hyposecretion) Abnormal tissue responsiveness to hormone (hyper- or hyporesponsiveness) Growth Hormone Pituitary dwarfism Pituitary gigantism Acromegaly Hyperprolactinemia Thyroid Hormone Graves’ disease Cretinism Adrenal cortex hormones Adrenal medulla hormones Cushing’s disease Pheochromocytoma Addison’s disease Insulin Gonadal steroid hormones Diabetes Type I Hypogonadism Diabetes Type II ADH Diabetes insipidus
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Pituitary Gigantism: Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion in children results in gigantism as the still-active epiphyseal growth plates in bones are targeted by growth hormone.
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course BIO 416 K taught by Professor Findell during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas.

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Lecture 8 - Endocrine Pathologies Bio416K Spring 2010(2) LECTURE 9......

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