Anatomy and Physiology 2 Study GuideExam 4: Cardiovascular SystemChapter 273)Blood is made of plasma and formed elements. What is plasma? What are formed elements?4)What are the three general types of cells/cell fragments in blood?5)Roughly how much blood is in an adult (both by percentage of body weight, and by volume)? 8% and 5L6)How can blood volume be measured?7)How does body fat percentage affect blood volume?8)What is hematocrit/packed cell volume? What is the buffy coat?9)What percentage of blood is hematocrit? Answer the same question for the plasma and buffycoat.10) Plasma is 90% water and 10% solutes. Among the solutes are proteins. Name the three maintypes of plasma proteins. What is the function of each type? Which type is most abundant?11) What is the difference between plasma and serum?12) Structurally, how are red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes) different from most other cells?13) How is the biconcave shape useful to RBCs?14) What is the main function of RBCs?
15) What is hemoglobin? 16) How many oxygen molecules can one heme group/iron ion carry? How many oxygen molecules can one hemoglobin molecule carry?17) What is a hematopoietic stem cell?18) What is erythropoiesis? Where does this take place in the body?19) What hormone from the kidneys boosts erythropoiesis?20) How long to RBCs live? Where and how are old and defective RBCs destroyed?21) What three main parts are old RBCs broken down into? Which parts are reused?22) What is a transfusion reaction? Can it be fatal?23) What are the four blood types in the ABO system? For each type, note the antigen on the RBCs and the antibodies in the plasma.