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Anatomy Notes - BLOOD a connective tissue with a fluid...

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BLOOD - a connective tissue with a fluid Matrix Components of Blood A.) Liquid Portion – 55% of Blood volume Blood Plasma 1.) H 2 O – 91.5% 2.) Dissolved Substances a.) Proteins – 3 types – 7% of Blood Plasma - Albumins - Globulins - Fibrogens b.) Ions Minerals - Most Common- Sodium c.) Nutrients - Sugars, Amino Acids, Vitamins d.) Waste Products - CO 2 , Urea, Billirubin e.) Gases – O 2 , N 2 , CO 2 f.) Regulatory Substances - Hormones, Enzymes B.) Formed Substances - 45% of Blood Volume - Solid Portion Cells or Cell Pieces 1.) Erythrocytes - Red Blood Cells - 99% of Formed Elements - Carry O 2 in Blood a.) Anatomy of RBC’s i.) Shape – Biconcave Disk - Increases Surface Area - Flexible to sneak in tiny capillaries ii.) Modifications - No nucleus - so no cell repair - Filled with Hemoglobin Protein (carries O 2 ) iii.) Life Span - Live 120 Days 2.) Leukocytes - White Blood Cells - Immune Cells a.) Granular Leukocytes - all have odd shaped nuclei and Granules in cytoplasm i.) Nectophils - Secrete anti-microbial chemicals - Lobed Nucleus 2-6 Lobes ii.) Eosinophils - Fight parasitic worms - Nucleus has 2 lobes connected by strand iii.) Basophils - Involved in Allergic Reactions - is “s” shaped or irregular b.) Agranular Leukocytes - no granules in cytoplasm i.) T-cell lymphocyte - control immune system ii.) B-cell lymphocyte - make antibodies iii.) Monocytes - turn into Macrophage in connective tissue 3.) Platelets (Thrombocytes) - Pieces of cells - Formed when Megakaryocyte fractures - involved in Blood Clotting HEART Location – on center line - Projects into left side of the chest - sits in mass of tissue medias tinum Shape 1.) Base – superior portion 2.) Apex – Point of heart off to left – inferior 3.) Sternocostal Surface - Anterior surface 4.) Diaphragmatic Surface - Inferior part sitting on diaphragm Pericardium - connective tissue sac around the heart 3 Layers: 1.) Fibrous Pericardium - dense irregular fibrous connective tissue 2.) Serous Pericardium - 2 Layers a.) Parietal Layer -- Pericardial Cavity – filled with fluids – b.) Visceral Layer – Heart wall layer Heart wall layers 1.) Epicardium -same as visceral layer of Serous Pericardium - most superficial 2.) Myocardium - middle layer - Cardiac muscle 3.) Endocardium - Endothelial layer - lines heart chamber External Anatomy A.) Grooves & Sulchi - depressions on heart 1.) Left and right Sulchi - Ventricular Grooves - Grooves between atria and ventricles 2.) Anterior and Posterior - interventricular Sulchi - Deep grooves between ventricles B.) Blood Vessels of Heart 1.) Superior Vena Cava - Enters RT Atrium from above 2.) Inferior Vena Cava - Enters RT Atrium from below
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