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Anatomy1 - Lecture Human Anatomy Class is about location...

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Lecture 6/21/07 Human Anatomy Class is about location & shape of organs. It’s not about the function or how they work. Directional Terms : Used to navigate you on the body. Terms come in pairs: 1. Lateral: Away from center line of body. Medial: Toward center line of body. 2. Proximal : Closer to body. Distal : Further from body. 3. Anterior : Face side of body. Posterior : Butt side of body. 4. Dorsal : Spine side of body. Ventral : Belly side of body. 5. Superior : Toward the head. Inferior : Toward the feet or away from head. 6. Superficial : Near skin. Deep : Toward body core (heart, lungs, etc.) Planes of Section : Ways to cut the body to see inside. 1. Sagittal section : Vertical cut that divides left from right. Mid-sagittal section : cut on midline. 2. Frontal section : Vertical cut separates anterior from posterior. 3. Transverse or horizontal section : horizontal cut separates superior from inferior. 4. Oblique cut or section : cut at angle through body. Anatomical Position : Body standing, facing anterior and palms forward Structural Plan 1. Bilateral Symmetry: Left and right side of body are mirror images. 2. Your body is a tube in a tube. a. Inner tube: alimentary canal (Gastro Intestinal tract) b. Outer tube: Body cavities. I. Dorsal Body Cavity: Holds Central Nervous System. a. Cranial cavity holds the brain. b. Ventral cavity holds spinal cord. II. Ventral Body Cavity: Holds guts. a. Thoracic cavity: chest; holds heat and lungs. b. Abdominal Pelvic Cavity: holds Gastro Intestinal organs, pelvic organs, bladder, and reproductive organs. Tissues : Group of cells working together for a purpose. Cells : Units of all live. Cells do all functions of life. Nucleus at center holds DNA. Cytoplasm held by Cell membrane is semi-fluid, filled with chemicals. Types of Tissues A. Epithelial Tissue : Cover surfaces, line cavities and form glands. (i.e., skin, lining of mouth) 1. General Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue -Cells are closely packed -Cells are arranged in sheets -Sheets have Apical (top) & Basal (bottom) surface -Cells attached by cell junctions; stick cells together -Avascular: No blood supply -Attached to connective tissue under Basal surface by Basement Membrane with 2 layers: 1. Basil Lamina : Formed by Epithelial tissue. 2. Reticular Lamina : Formed by connective tissue -Have nerve supply -High capacity for renewal; lots of cell division. 2. Cell shape for Epithelial Tissue a. Squamous: Flat and wide b. Cubodial: Same height and width. c. Columner: Taller height than width. 3. Epithelial Tissue Layers a. Simple: One layer b. Stratified: More than one layer c. Pseudo-stratified: One layer of cells that are not same height; looks like multiple layers 4. Types of Epithelial Tissues A. Covering and Lining Epithelia 1. Simple Squamous. Ex.: Line alveoli of lungs 2. Simple Cuboidal. Ex.: In kidney tubules 3. Simple Columnar: Ex.: Stomach lining.
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