course_notes - BIOLOGY 373 COURSE NOTES FALL 2010 Table of...

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BIOLOGY 373 COURSE NOTES FALL 2010
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Page Introduction 1 Lecture One: Communication between Cells, and the Endocrine System 2 Lecture Two: Metabolism, Maintenance of Body Temperature, and Short-term control of Energy Reserves by Hormones 9 Lecture Three: Homeostasis of the Body's Energy Content, and Hormonal Controls of the Metabolic Rate, Growth, and the Plasma Concentration of Calcium 16 Lecture Four: The Central Nervous System, Principles of Sensory Physiology, Skin Sensors and Taste 23 Lecture Five: Olfaction, Hearing, Equilibrium, and Vision 30 Lecture Six: Diffusion and Osmosis, Body Fluids, Homeostasis, Control Systems, and Epithelia 39 Lecture Seven: Kidney Anatomy, and Processes in the Glomerulus and Proximal Tubule 42 Lecture Eight: Processes in the Loop of Henle, Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct, Measurement of Kidney Function, and Water Balance 46 Lecture Nine: Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Extracellular Fluid by the Kidneys 50 Lecture Ten: Nutrients, and an Overview of the Gastrointestinal Tract 55 Lecture Eleven: Processes in the Gastrointestinal System: Mouth and Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach and Liver 59 Lecture Twelve: Processes in the Gastrointestinal System: Pancreas and Small Intestine 65 Lecture Thirteen: Processes in the Gastrointestinal System: the Large Intestine, Co-ordination of Gastrointestinal Functions, and the Fate of Absorbed Nutrients 70 Lecture Fourteen: Sexual Maturation, Production of Sperm Cells, Production of Egg Cells, and the Female Reproductive Cycle 76 Lecture Fifteen: Fertilization of the Egg Cell, Embryonic and Fetal Development, Birth, and Nursing of the Baby 84 Table of Contents
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1 Introduction These notes are intended to be used in conjunction with your textbook; neither of these written sources, nor the lectures alone, will give you all the information you need. The course notes summarize, and in a few cases, restate the contents of the recorded lectures. Figures have been included that cannot be found in your textbook.
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2 Lecture #1 Communication between Cells, and the Endocrine System Communication between Cells Cells can signal each other electrically or chemically. S Gap junctions are structures in cell membranes that allow electrical pulses to pass from one cell to its neighbour. S Chemical messenger molecules can be released by a cell into the interstitial fluid surrounding it. The cell which receives the message has a receptor within it or on its surface that specifically fits the shape of the messenger. S The binding of a chemical messenger to its receptor causes events to occur within the target cell. S Chemical messenger molecules can be classified according to their chemical structures. Chemical Class Example amino acid or amino acid derivative thyroid hormones epinephrine peptide vasopressin steroid estrogen fatty acid derivative prostaglandin other acetylcholine Messengers classified by chemical structure S Chemical messenger molecules can also be classified by the distance between the cell that releases the signal and the target cell.
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