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Module 03The Skeletal System
Bone PhysiologyAnatomy and Physiology I
ObjectivesDefine the functions of the skeletal systemCompare and contrast the two types of bone formationIdentify and describe the importance of the epiphyseal platesCompare and contrast the factors that influence bone (matrix) homeostasisCompare and contrast the actions of calcitonin and parathyroid hormoneDefine the terms: Osteopenia and osteoporosisList and define the steps involved in bone repair4/24/20203
Skeletal System: Functions1.Support2.Protection3.Movement4.Mineral storage5.Hematopoiesis6.Triglyceride storage4/24/20204
Skeletal System:OverviewComposed of:BonesCartilageLigamentsJoints4/24/20205
Skeletal System:OverviewBone tissue is a dynamic tissue full of cellsExtracellular matrix continually remodels itself and interacts with otherorgan systemsComposed of:BonesCartilageLigamentsJoints4/24/20206
Bone:Classification4/24/20207LongIrregularShortSesamoidFlat
The Skeletal SystemThe skeletal system is divided into two main group1.Axial Skeleton (80 bones)2.Apendicular Skeleton:- Extremities
Axial sectioni.Headii.Trunkiii.Spinal columniv.Sternumv.Ribs
Axial Skeleton (80 bones)Skull (8)Parietal (2)Temporal (2)Frontal (1)Occipital (1)Ethmoid (1)Sphenoid (1)Facial BonesMaxilla (2)Zygomatic (2)Mandible (1)Nasal (2)Platine (2)Inferior nasalconcha (2)Lacrimal (2)Vomer (1)Auditory OssiclesMalleus (2)Incus (2)Stapes (2)Hyoid(1)Vertebral ColumnCervical vertebrae (7)Thoracic vertebrae (12)Lumbar vertebrae (5)Sacrum (1)Coccyx (1)Thoracic CageSternum (1)Ribs (24)
Bone:Long BoneAnatomyEpiphysisDiaphysisMetaphysisArticular cartilageMedullary cavityPeriosteumEndosteumNutrient foramenRed and yellow marrow4/24/202011
Overview of SkullCranium is divided into a vault and a base1.Cranial vault(calvaria) forms superior, lateral, andposterior portion of skull, as well as forehead2.Cranial baseforms inferior aspect of skullInternally base is divided into three“steps,” or fossae:anterior,middle,posterior fossaeBrain sits within these fossae, enclosed by craniumvaultArea referred to ascranial cavity
The Skull
Bone Formation: OverviewOssification or OsteogenesisFormation of boneTwo methodsIntramembranous ossificationEndochondral ossification4/24/202014
Spinal Bones,Curves and RegionCervicalLordotic curve7vertebraeThoracicKyphotic curve12 vertebraeLumbarLordotic curve5 vertebraeSacrum5 fused sectionsCoccyx4/24/202015
Figure 7.16 The VertebralColumn
Spinal Bones,Curves andRegion4/24/202017
Spinal Bones, Curves and Region4/24/202018HyperlordosisHyperkyphosis
AbnormalSpinalCurvatures
TypicalVertebralStructures

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Term
Spring
Professor
Garrity
Tags
flat bone

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