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Unformatted text preview: MASTERING O’LEVEL ISLAMIAT The only book you will ever need to excel MUHAMMAD BILAL ASLAM 1 All rights reserved No portion of this book may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without written permission of the author. Book’s Name : MASTERING O’LVEL ISLAMIAT Author : MUHAMMAD B I LAL ASLAM Printer : MAKTABA-JADEED PRESS 14-Empress Road, Lahore. Publisher : TARIQ NAJIB CORPORATION 16-Temple Road, Lahore. Stockist : ANEES BOOK CORNER Main Market, Gulberg, Lahore Phone: 042-5751683, 042-5757971, 0300-4498313 First Edition : 1999 Second Edition : 2001 Third Edition : 2006 Fourth Edition : 2008 Price : Rs. 300/- 2 Preface This fourth edition of `Mastering O Level Islamiat’ has been updated in line with the requirements of 200ave tried to make this version as complete and well-rounded as possible by adding a number of new sections and chapters so that students have all the possible information they require under one cover. I have also included in this new version ten standard maps to enable the students to better comprehend a situation and to know where exactly the event took place at the given point of time. Judging by the feedback I have received since this book was first published in 1999, I have very high hopes that Insha Allah it will be as helpful to students as it was then. Amen! Muhammad Bilal Aslam 3 4 Table of Contents Preface Section One Passages from the Holy Quran Section Two History and Importance of the Holy Quran Section Three Arabia Before Islam Section Four Biographical Account of the Lifef the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Chapter 1 Early Life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Chapter 2 From Call to Migration Chapter 3 Foundation of the Republic of Madina Chapter 4 Wars with the Quraish Chapter 5 Expulsion of Jews frm Madina Chapter 6 Treaty of Hudaybia Chapter 7 Unification of Northern Arabia Chapter 8 Letters of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to different Rulers asking them to Embrace Islam Chapter 9 Fall of Makkah Chapter 10 Supermacy of Islam in Central and Southern Arabia Chapter 11 Last days of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Chapter 12 Some Outstanding Qualities of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Chapter 13 Behavior of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Towards Others Chapter 14 Government and Society under Muhammad (PBUH) Chapter 15 Relations of the 1st Islamic State of Madina under the Holy Prophet (PBUH) with other States Section Five The First Islamic Community of Madina Chapter 1 Umm-ul-Momineen Chapter 2 Descendents of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Chapter 3 Asharah Mubasharah 5 Chapter 4 Scribes of Divine Revelation Chapter 5 Muhajirin and Ansar Chapter 6 Important Personalities during the Lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) at Makkah and Madina Chapter 7 Imamat and Khilafat in Shi’ite Thought Section Six The Four Pious Caliphs Chapter 1 Caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr Chapter 2 Caliphate of Hazrat Umar Farooq Chapter 3 Caliphate of Hazrat Usman Chapter 4 Caliphate of Hazrat Ali Section Seven Six Articles of Faith Chapter 1 Unity or Oneness of Allah Chapter 2 The Angels Chapter 3 The Books of Allah Chapter 4 Prophet and Prophethood Chapter 5 The Day of Judgement Chapter 6 Belief in the Divine Preordainment And Divine Decrees Section Eight Five Pillars of Islam Chapter 1 Witness (Shahada) Chapter 2 Prayers (Salat) Chapter 3 Zakat Chapter 4 Fasting (Saum) Chapter 5 Hajj (Pilgrimage) Section Nine Rights of Allah and Men Section Ten Jihad Section Eleven Women in Islam 6 Section Twelve Rights of Non-Muslims in Islam Section Thirteen History and Importance of Ahadis Section Fourteen Selected Ahadis 7 Section one Passages from the Holy Quran (1) Ayat-ul-Kursi (2:255) Allah! There is no deity but He (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Ever living, the One Who sustains and protects all, neither over takes Him slumber nor sleep, To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, who is there that could intercede with Him except by His Own permission. He knows all what is in front of them and also what is hidden from them and they cannot comprehend anything of His knowledge except what He wills. His kingdom extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding them both, and He is the most High and the most Great. (2:255) Explanation: Allah is One, Absolute and Eternal. No one else shares any of His attributes and Authority with Him. 8 He is Omnipotent, All Powerful and Supreme, the Mightiest who created this universe comprising of billions of galaxies, stars and planets. Being the Sovereign Lord of the Universe, He administers it single-handedly, without the assistance of anyone else or interference from any quarter. All what is there in the universe belongs to Him alone and to no one else. Allah Almighty is Omniscient. His knowledge in all manifestations and dimensions is absolute, perfect and complete, all-encompassing and all-embracing. He knows the hidden and the manifest, past and present and also what lies ahead, to the minutest possible details. No one has the power to intercede with Allah on someone’s behalf, not even the most powerful of prophets, unless one is permitted by Him to do so. It is He alone who maintains and sustains heavens and earth and everything contained therein, and while doing so, He neither requires rest nor He ever tires or feels fatigued. This verse emphatically cuts across the doctrine of Holy Trinity as preached by the Christians or the two-god (Ahura Mazda and Ahriman) concept of Magians or the worship of multitude of gods and goddesses by the pagans. It also belies the stand of the atheists who maintain that this universe came into being as a result of some accident and would continue to function in a mechanical manner till it completes its circle of life and dissolves into oblivion. The Holy Quran at other places speaks of Allah in these words: “Say: He is Allah, the One; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is He begotten; and there is none equal or comparable to Him.” (112:1-4) There is nothing whatever like unto Him and He is the All-Hearing, the AllSeeing.” (42:11) “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms. To Him belong the Best Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is All-Mighty, the All-wise.” (59:23-4) (2) Surah An’aam (6:101-103) 101. To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: how can He have a son when he has no consort? 102. He created all things, and He has full knowledge of all things. That is Allah, Your Lord! There is no god but He, the Creator of all things: then worship Him: and he has power to dispose of all affairs. 103. No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things. (6:101-103) Explanation: All What you see in the universe has been created by Allah alone, and no one else. As He is the creator, the Sustainer and Protector of all heavens and earth, He alone is worthy of being worshipped, for He shares with no one the Sovereignty and Lordship of His universe. Allah is One, Eternal and Absolute; He has no wife nor has He the begotten any son. Those who say to the contrary derogate His attributes, glory and uniqueness. Allah is omnipotent, All Powerful and Supreme. Human vision can not comprehend Him but He comprehends everything because His knowledge in all dimensions and manifestations is absolute, perfect and complete As He is indefinable, unfathomable and inaccessible to human perception, His presence can be felt and visualized only by seeing and probing the super excellence and perfection of the immeasurably vast universe which He has created. 9 Allah says at other places in the Holy Quran that: “Say: “Behold all that is in the heavens and on earth; but neither signs nor warners benefit those who believe not.” (10:101) “Say He is Allah, the One; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute, He begets not, nor is He begotten; and there is none equal or comparable to Him.” (112:1-4) (3) Surah Fussilat or Surah Ha the Meem Al-Sajda (41:3739) 37. Among His sings are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Adore not the sun and the moon, but adore Allah, who created them, if it is Him you wish to serve. 38. But if people are arrogant, in the presence of your Lord are those who celebrate His praises by night and by day. And they never grow tired. 39. And among His signs is this: you see the earth barren and desolate, but when We send down rain to it, it is stirred to life and yields increase. Truly, He who gives life to the earth can surely give life to those who are dead, for He has power over all things. (41:37-39) Explanation: 10 The sun and the moon and day and night are signs of Allah and being His creation, wield no authority or power on their own. It is not the signs of Allah but Allah Himself who alone should be worshipped because He is the sole Creator and Sustainer of all what exists in this immeasurably vast universe of which He is the sovereign Lord. If transgressors of the Power and Authority of Allah continue to exhibit arrogance and defiance (by ridiculing and casting doubt on revelation), it is they who would be at loss and not Allah. In Surah Al-Qamar 54:2, Allah says: “And if they see a sign, they turn away and say: This is continuous magic.” In the same Surah at 54:43, it is revealed: “Are your disbelievers (O Quraish) better than the nations of Nuh, Lut, Salih and the people of Fir’aun who were destroyed?” Contrary to what such people do and say, there are men and angels who celebrate Allah’s praise and glory day and night and they hardly ever get tired in it. Another sign of Allah is that He causes revival of dead land after rainfall. The disbelievers should know that as dead earth comes back to life after one shower of rainfall, the dead human-beings too would be resurrected by Allah Almighty to life for accountability on the day of judgment. The revival of dead after rainfall also implies that a believer should never abandon the hope that his mission to bring the defiant to the fold of Islam would one day succeed for which he would be rewarded in both worlds. As man’s vision and perception are limited, he adores the Sun and Moon, Day and Night and Rainfall and other natural phenomena, but refuses to recognize the magnificence and glory of the Supreme Lord of the Universe. The stars scattered through infinite space, the vast panorama of nature with its charm and beauty, the regular waxing and waning of the moon, the astonishing harmony of the seasons and the days and nights all points towards one fact: there is a God, the Creator, the Governor. Allah says in the Holy Quran that: “It is He who made the sun radiate a brilliant light and the moon reflect a luster, and ordained for it stages, that you might know the number of years and the reckoning of time.” (10:5) “Have they not looked at the sky above them, how We made it and adorned it, and there are no flaws in it”? (50:6) “It is He who has created seven heavens one above another. No incongruity can you see in the creation of the Most Beneficent. Then look again: can you see any rifts? Again turn your vision a second time: your sight will return to you confused and fatigued.” (67:3-4) (4) Surah Shura (42:4-5) 4. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: and He is most high, most great. 5. The heavens are almost rent asunder from above them, and the angels celebrate the praises of their Lord, and pray for forgiveness for beings on earth: Behold! Verily Allah is He, the oft-forgiving, the most merciful. (42:4-5) Explanation: 11 All what is in the heavens and on earth belongs exclusively to Allah and to no one else. Allah’s Authority, His Power, His Suzerainty and Sovereignty over His entire universe is un-paralleled, un-matched and un-disputed and not shared by Him with anyone else, be that the so-called gods and goddesses, the Begotten Son, the Holy Ghost , Ahura Mazda or Ahriman. It is Allah alone who administers His kingdom single-handedly, without aid, help or assistance from any quarter. The Majesty, the Grandeur and Magnificence of Allah can not be conceived by humanbeings. It is the dwellers of heavens i.e. the angels who are aware of its magnitude and depth and know that even the highest heavens are almost ready to burst asunder by the greatness of His glory. As angels are aware of the implications of defiance and transgression of Allah’s commands by human-beings, besides celebrating the glory of the Almighty, they also pray and beg of Him that the dwellers of the earth be forgiven for the un-warranted vanity and arrogance exhibited by them towards His commands. As human-beings are prone to err and sin, Allah has willed upon Himself the law of grace, forgiveness and mercy which is manifest from the fact that in-spite of their transgressions, arrogance and vanity, He goes on giving them respite so that they may reflect, realize their mistake and come to the right path. At other places in the Holy Quran, Allah says that: 12 “He is kind, and what He, out of His mercy, bestows on mankind, there is no one who can withhold it.” (35:2) “If He does design some benefit for you there is none (who) can keep back His favor. He causes it to reach whosoever of His servants He pleases.” (35:2) “Say: O Ibadi (My servants) who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins), despair not of the Mercy of Allah: verily, Allah forgives all sins, truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (39:53) “And My Mercy embraces all things.” (7:156) Allah Almighty, however, warns that if someone persists in defiance and arrogance, then he is sure to earn Allah’s wrath. “He who forgives sins, accepts repentance, is strict in punishment and has long reach.” (40:3) “If Allah touches you with affliction, none can remove it but He Himself.” (6:17) (5) Surah Ikhlas (112) Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal. Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten. And there is none like unto Him. Period of Revelation: This is an early Makkahn surah. Subject Matter: This surah deals with Tauhid, the Unity of God. Explanation: Ayat (i): The word Allah was not new to the pagans of Arabia. This word had been used for the Creator of the Universe for a long time. This ayat teaches man to avoid the pitfalls of understanding Allah. The first is to remember that He is our Creator. He cares for us. The second is that He is One and Only. He is the only One to Whom worship is due. The fact that Allah is One and Only negates the idea of polytheism, in which people believe in many gods. Ayat (ii): `Samad’ has been translated by Abdullah Yousaf Ali in two ways: Eternal and Absolute. That absolute existence can only be predicated to Allah. That all things and beings are dependent on Him and He is not dependent on anyone. Ayat (iii): This ayat negates the Christian idea on proposing Jesus as `Son of God’. Allah was not begotten, nor does He have any children. This Ayat is very clearly stating the fact that He is not dependent on any being and there is no concept of His children. Ayat (iv): This ayat sums up the argument of all previous ayats. There was no one like Allah in the past, there is no one like Him in the present, and there will never be anyone like Him in future as well. This ayat is also a warning to those who have the tendency to liken Allah to another being, a human or such. Allah is unlike any other. 13 (6) Surah Fatihah (1:1-7) In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the entire universe. The Merciful, the Compassionate. The Master of the Day of Recompense. You alone do we worship, and You alone do we turn for help. Direct us on to the Straight Way. The way of those whom You have favored. Who did not incur Your wrath, who are not astray. Title: Al-Fatihah (1 The Opening’), the title reflects the content of this surah. The title signifies an introduction, an inauguration, and this surah is equivalent to an `Introduction’ or a `Foreword’. Period of Revelation: This is a Makkan surah. This surah was revealed at the very outset of Muhammad’s (PBUH) Prophethood. Traditions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) show this to be first complete surah to be revealed. Subject matter: Al-Fatihah is actually a prayer, taught by Allah to all those who read His Book. This surah is a prayer and a response- Al-Fatihah being the prayer that man makes to Allah and the rest of the Quran is Allah’s response to man’s prayer. This surah is also called: 14 (i) Fatihah-al-Kitaab (The Opening of the Book) (ii) Umm-ul-Kitaab (Mother of the essence of the Book) (iii) Surat-ul-Hamd (The surah of Praise) (iv) Surah-us-Salaat (The chapter of Prayers) (v) Surat-ud-Dua (The surah of Supplication) (vi) Asas-al-Quran (The Foundation of the Quran) Explanation: Ayat (i): This surah begins with the principle that ever activity, every gesture, should begin in the name of Allah. As said, the character of this surah is that of a prayer- a prayer that begins with the praise of One to Whom the prayer is addressed. It is important to note that the prayer is not merely that praise be to God, but all praise be to Allah alone. Prayer to Allah is called for because all excellence calls for praise and because He is our Benefactor. Our praise of Allah arises out of a deep feeling of gratitude. If there is anyone at all whom we must adore and worship, towards whom we should be humble and devoted, it is the Creator of the Universe, and the Creator of all excellence. Ayat (ii): In Arabic, the word Rabb has three meanings: (i) Lord and Master; (ii) Sustainer, Provider, Supporter, Nourhisher and Guardian, and (iii) Sovereign Ruler, He who controls and directs. God is the Rabb in all three meanings of the term. `Rahman’ and `Rahim’ are translated as `Most Gracious’ and `Most Merciful”. They pertain to Allah’s Attributes of Grace and Mercy. Ayat (iii): Allah is the Lord of the Day when all mankind will gather to render accounts of their conduct on earth and all generations wil be rewarded or punished for their doings. This Ayat follows after the one describing Allah’s Mercy and Benevolence so that one may not think that one is to forget the Hereafter. Ayat (iv): 1. Arabic word Ibadah is used in three senses: 2. Worship and adoration: 3. Obedience and submission; and 15 Service and subjection: In this particular context, the term carries all three senses simultaneously. We say to Allah, that we worship and adore Him, we are obedient to Him, and also that we are His servants. Not only do we worship Allah, we also turn only to Him for help. Ayat (v): We beseech Allah to guide us in all walks of life so that we follow the `Straight’ path. We pray to Him, to provide us with sound principles of behaviour and conduct and show us the path that will lead to salvation and happiness. This Ayat follows after the one describing Allah’s Mercy and Benevolence so that one may not think that one is to forget the Hereafter. Ayat (vi): This defines the `straight path’ which we beseech Allah to show to us. This is the path that was followed by those who have enjoyed Allah’s favours and blessings. Ayat (vii): This ayat makes it clear that the recipients of Allah’s blessings are not those who go astray. The recipients of Allah’s favour may not also be those who appear to briefly enjoy worldly prosperity and success. Those who receive Allah’s abiding favors and blessings are the people who follow the right path. (7) Surah Baqarah (2:21-22) 21. O people! Adore your Guardian-Lord, who created you and those who came before you, so that you may have the chance to learn righteousness; 22. Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and sent down rain from the heavens; and by it brought forth fruits for your sustenance; then do not set up rivals to Allah, when you know. (2:21-22) Explanation: 16 As Allah is the Creator the Sustainer, and the Cherisher of the entire universe comprising all of mankind, earth and the heave...
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