L07 Photo20110 - Lecture7 Photosynthesis Respiration Formsofenergy Sunlight Covalentbonds(ATP Reducingpower(NADH,NADPH ,

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Lecture 7 Photosynthesis Respiration
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Forms of energy: Sunlight Electrochemical gradients Covalent bonds (ATP) Reducing power (NADH, NADPH) During photosynthesis, respiration and glycolysis these forms of energy are converted from one to another  Just learned that   ATP synthase converts H +  EC gradient to  phosphoanhydride bond of ATP How is H +  EC gradient generated? (by ATP synthase would be futile) Photosynthetic and respiratory e- transport chains
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Light  reactions Electron transport chain Dark  reactions Overview Lecture 7 Photosynthesis Excitation of electrons Respiration - Mitochondrial electron transport Mitochondria structure Electron transport chain
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Light carries energy Light carries energy Light has properties of both waves and particles (“photons”) Energy carried by a mole of photons is inversely proportional to wavelength ( λ ): “red” photons ( λ  = 700 nm) ~41 kcal “blue” photons ( λ  = 450 nm) ~64 kcal During photosynthesis, plants use pigments to capture light energy and convert it to the energy  of chemical bonds (ATP) and electrons (NADPH) Margulis and Sagan: Photosynthesis is “undoubtedly the most important single metabolic innovation in the  history of life on the planet”
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Chloroplast -   plants and algae Chloroplast structure: Three membranes: outer, innner and thylakoids Stroma between inner membrane and thylakoids Photosynthesis occurs in  thylakoid membranes and stroma ECB 14-26 In photosynthetic bacteria, photosynthesis occurs in  thylakoids  and cytoplasm
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Photosynthesis occurs in two stages (plants, algae, cyanobacteria) ‘Light’ reactions = photosynthetic e- transfer    Occur in thylakoid membrane   e- transport generates H +  EC gradient that is used to make ATP   Consume H 2 O   Produce O 2 , ATP and NADPH (reducing power) ‘Dark’ reactions = carbon fixation reactions      Occur in stroma   Consume ATP and NADPH ( G-) to ‘fix’ carbon ( G+)  ECB 14-28
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Make ATP in stroma using F 1 F 0  ATP  synthase powered by a proton  electrochemical gradient Light reactions - overview H +  EC gradient generated using e-  transport chain   Use energy from sunlight
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Chlorophyll absorbs specific wavelengths of light Not all light is  used in photosynthesis Absorption spectra of pigments in plants high energy photons low energy photons
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1.  Resonance energy transfer  -      excited state (not electron)     transferred to adjacent chlorophyll 2.  Photochemistry  (charge separation) Chlorophyll Structure Tail allows chlorophyll to insert in thylakoid membrane Conjugated double bonds stabilize excited electron ECB 14-29 Absorption of photon excites an electron Excited electron can undergo
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course BIO 2020 taught by Professor Kropf during the Spring '11 term at University of Utah.

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L07 Photo20110 - Lecture7 Photosynthesis Respiration Formsofenergy Sunlight Covalentbonds(ATP Reducingpower(NADH,NADPH ,

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