Chapter+38(2010) - PNR 182 Chapter 38: Anticoagulant &...

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PNR 182 Chapter 38: Anticoagulant & Thrombolytic Drugs Dallas Collins Spring Semester 2010
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Thrombus/ Embolus Thrombus: blood clot that can form in any vessel (artery or vein) stopping blood flow. Example: venous thrombus can develop as the result of venous stasis or decreased blood flow, injury to the vessel wall, or altered blood coagulation. Venous thrombosis most often occurs in the lower extremities. The most common type of venous thrombosis is deep vein thrombosis (DVT) . Arterial thrombosis can occur because of atherosclerosis or arrhythmias. Embolus: traveling thrombus that has detached itself and travels in the bloodstream until it reaches a vessel that is too small for it to go through. Example: If the embolus goes to the lung and obstructs a pulmonary vessel, it is called a pulmonary embolism. If it goes to the heart and blocks a vessel supplying blood to the heart, it can cause an MI or heart attack.
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DRUGS Sometimes drugs are needed to keep blood from clotting too readily. If blood clots too readily, life-threatening clots may form in arteries of the heart, brain, or lungs. As a result, the risk of a heart attack, a stroke, or pulmonary embolism is increased. Several different types of drugs can help control clotting. These drugs are known as: Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets, and Thrombolytics
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Anticoagulants Used to prevent the formation and extension of a thrombus. Have NO DIRECT EFFECT on an existing thrombus and DO NOT reverse any damage from the thrombus. Anticoagulant therapy can however, prevent additional clots from forming. Commonly called blood thinners, although they do NOT thin the blood. Used prophylactically in patients at high risk for clot formation. Examples of these drugs include: Warfarin (Coumadin), Anisindione (Miradon), and Fractionated/Unfractionated Heparin *Warfarin(Coumadin) is the most commonly prescribed drug of choice for long term therapy.*
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ACTIONS All Anticoagulants interfere with the clotting mechanism of blood. Warfarin/Anisindione interfere with the manufacturing of vitamin K dependent clotting factors by the liver. This depletes clotting factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX,
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Chapter+38(2010) - PNR 182 Chapter 38: Anticoagulant &...

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