Chp+33+2010+PNR+182 - PNR 182 Jeanne Gu, MSN, RN January...

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PNR 182 Jeanne Gué, MSN, RN January 25, 2010 Chapter 33: Antihistamines and Decongestants Drug Class: Antihistamines (Benadryl, Phenergan, loratadine) Histamine is a substance produced by the body in response to injury, allergic reactions and hypersensitivity reactions, which causes dilation of arterioles resulting in localized redness and swelling. Thus the release of histamine produces an inflammatory response. Histamine is also released in allergic reactions or hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylactic shock. If histamines dilate than anti histamines constrict. Actions: Antihistamines block most but not all, of the effects of histamine. They do this by preventing histamine from entering receptor sites and producing an effect on body tissues. Uses: Systemic treatment of allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. The big advantage of antihistamines is that they treat the nose, the eyes, and the terrible itching which can sometimes come from an allergic reaction. They do not however stop nasal congestion. Other uses include: Relief of symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergies Relief of allergic reactions to drugs, blood, plasma, bee stings. Adjunctive(?) therapy in anaphylactic shock Mild and uncomplicated angioneurotic edema and urticaria Relief of nausea and vomiting Relief of motion sickness Sedation Allergic conjunctivitis Treatment of parkinsonism Adverse Reactions: Drowsiness and sedation are the most common adverse reactions Disturbed coordination May also cause dryness of the mouth, nose and throat Thickening of bronchial secretions Constipation, urinary frequency, blurred vision Even though these drugs re sometimes uses to treat allergies, a drug allergy can occur with the use of antihistamines. 1
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Contraindications: They are generally contraindicated during pregnancy. Contraindicated in lactating women because the drugs pass readily into breast milk and may have adverse affect on newborns. Nursing Alert: The nurse MUST NOT administer antihistamines to patients with lower respiratory diseases such as asthma. The drying effect on the respiratory tract may cause thickening of respiratory secretions and make expectoration more difficult. Precautions
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course PNR 182 taught by Professor Toole during the Spring '10 term at Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical College.

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Chp+33+2010+PNR+182 - PNR 182 Jeanne Gu, MSN, RN January...

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