PNR+182+Parenteral+Medications++Lecture+Notes+R+Toole+2010

PNR+182+Parenteral+Medications++Lecture+Notes+R+Toole+2010...

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Unformatted text preview: MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION PARENTERAL ROUTE R. Toole Spring 2010 OUCH! Parentera l means medicine administered through injection by any route other than the oral, topical, or inhalant route. Parenteral route refers to: Intradermal Into the dermis Subcutaneous (SQ)- Into the subcutaneous tissue, as with insulin and heparin Intramuscular (IM) Into the muscle Intravenous (IV) Into a vein Intrathecal/epidural Into the spinal fluid FACTS TO KNOW Onset of drug action is more rapid with a shorter duration Dosage is often smaller Cost of drug is greater Use the parenteral route: when the drug needs to be absorbed as rapidly and completely as possible or at a steady controlled rate if the pt. is unable to take a medication orally due to N/V if the pt. is unconscious Injection of Drugs Requires skill Drugs must be prepared carefully and administered accurately due to: 1. Trauma at puncture site 2. Possibility of infection 3. Chance of allergic reaction 4. Injury to tissue, nerves, veins, and other vessels 5. Needle could break off while in patient 6. Failure to aspirate before an injection could cause a SQ or IM medication to be given IV 7. The needle could strike a bone in a geriatric, pediatric, or very thin person as a result of improper selection of needle size Once injected, the drug is irretrievable! BE CAREFUL ! Use aseptic technique to avoid infection! Ensure the following: Accurate drug dosage Proper rate of injection Proper site of injection To Avoid: Abcess Necrosis Skin sloughing Nerve injuries Prolonged pain Periostitis (inflammation of membrane covering a bone) Facts about Drug Action Parenteral drugs go first to the systemic circulation, then to the liver. IM drugs are absorbed into the muscle before going into the blood stream. IV drugs are absorbed directly into the blood and act the most quickly. Oral drugs go first to the liver to be broken down, then to the systemic circulation; they are slower acting. Parenteral drugs act more quickly than oral drugs. Most drugs are broken down in the liver. Liver disease affects the metabolism of drugs. Most drugs have potential for liver toxicity. Syringes Most syringes are plastic and disposable. Some come with needles attached,some do not. Three Parts: 1. Barrel outer portion on which the calibrations for the measurement of the drug volume are located. 2. Plunger inner, cylindrical portion that fits snugly into the barrel. It is the mechanism that withdraws medication from the medication container and then is pushed by your finger to administer the medication The inner tip of the plunger looks like a dome with a tip followed below by an upper ring that touches the barrel, followed by a lower ring that is attached to the plunger and seals it from leaking....
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PNR+182+Parenteral+Medications++Lecture+Notes+R+Toole+2010...

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