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Unit 4 - LPNC LPNC UnitFour Therapy Maintenance...

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LPN-C LPN-C Unit Four Rationale for Intravenous  Therapy
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2 What is the Purpose of What is the Purpose of Intravenous Therapy? Intravenous Therapy? Maintenance Water Glucose Protein Vitamins Electrolytes pH Restoration of previous losses Replacement of present losses Administration of medication
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3 Water Water Water is necessary for adequate kidney  function –     Normal Intake    Normal Output Oral liquids          1300mL Urine              1500mL Water in food      1000mL Stool                 200mL Metabolism           300mL Lungs               300mL Total                     2600mL Skin                  600mL Total               2600mL Individual fluid requirements vary
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4 Glucose Glucose Converted to glycogen by the liver Has 4 main uses in parenteral therapy Improves hepatic function Supplies the necessary calories for energy Spares body protein Minimizes ketosis Approximately 100 – 150g of glucose  is needed daily to minimize protein  catabolism 1 liter of 5% dextrose in water  supplies 50g of glucose Dextrose in water is available in 2.5%,  5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%
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5 Glucose (cont’d) Glucose (cont’d) Dextrose concentrations higher than  10% must be given through a central  vein The exception is 50% dextrose slow IV  push at a rate of 3mL/min through a  peripheral vein for emergency treatment of  hypoglycemia Protein Protein Amino acids are the building blocks of  the body Tissue growth and repair Would healing Available in concentrations of 3.5 –  15%
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6 Protein (cont’d) Protein (cont’d) Daily requirements = 1g protein/kg  body weight Amount increases as stress to the body  increases Gluconeogenesis = conversion of  protein to glucose to meet energy  requirements Occurs during starvation, stress, or  infection Uses large amount of energy Body will use protein for energy if there  are inadequate glucose stores
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7 Vitamins Vitamins Vitamins B and C are most frequently  used Vitamin B is needed for the metabolism of  carbohydrates and maintenance of GI  function Vitamin C promotes wound healing Electrolytes Electrolytes Correction of electrolyte imbalances is  important in preventing serious  complications Important in parenteral therapy Potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium,  phosphorus, calcium, bicarbonate
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8 Electrolytes (cont’d) Electrolytes (cont’d) Potassium Adequate replacement therapy = 20mEq/L Patients who need potassium replacement  Stress from tissue injury Wound infection Gastric or bowel surgery Prolonged gastric suction
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