Unit 7 - LPNC LPNC UnitSeven PharmacologyR/T...

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LPN-C LPN-C Unit Seven Pharmacology R/T IV Administration
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2 Pharmacokinetic Concepts Pharmacokinetic Concepts Absorption  = the passage of a drug  through a body surface into the  tissues and the bloodstream Distribution  = process whereby a drug  is transported to its intended site Biotransformation  = the metabolism of  a drug within the body Excretion  = the process of removing  substances from the body Kidneys* Lungs Sweat glands Gastrointestinal system
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3 Drug Action Drug Action Plasma concentration and plasma  half-life are measured in hourly  intervals Plasma concentration  = the time it  takes for a drug to reach its peak  plasma level When given at constant intervals over a  period of time, plasma concentration  reaches uniform level; will not deviate  until discontinued or changes are made to  administration schedule When given at scheduled intervals, peak  plasma concentration occurs immediately 
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4 Drug Action (cont’d) Drug Action (cont’d) peak  blood sample is drawn  immediately following  the  administration of a drug trough  sample is drawn immediately  before  the next dose is given Half-life  refers to the time it takes the  body to metabolize and eliminate ½ the  original concentration of an  administered drug Abbreviated  t ½  If the half-life of a drug is 4 hours, the rate  at which the concentration diminishes in  the body is 100% = initial bolus, 50% = 4 
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5 Drug Action (cont’d) Drug Action (cont’d) *Factors affecting the action of a drug  include – Gender Age Body size Occupational exposure Lifestyle (diet, stress, exercise) Substance use Illness, fever Infectious disease Immunological disease Tissue injury
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6 Non-Approved Infusates for LPN-C Non-Approved Infusates for LPN-C Blood and blood products Antineoplastic agents Oxytocics Pitocin Ergotrate Methergine Syntocinon Antiarrhythmics Hyperalimentation TPN PPN Lipids
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7 Risks of IV Drug Administration Risks of IV Drug Administration * Medication/Fluid Incompatibility  =  chemical or physical reaction that  occurs among two or more drugs, or  between a drug and the delivery  device Physical incompatibility Cloudiness, haziness Gas bubbles Visible precipitation, clogging Color changes in the tubing or filter Chemical incompatibility Reaction between acidic and alkaline  drugs or solutions
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8 Risks of IV Drug Administration Risks of IV Drug Administration Therapeutic incompatibility Undesirable effect occurring in a patient  as a result of two or more drugs being  given concurrently
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Unit 7 - LPNC LPNC UnitSeven PharmacologyR/T...

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