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ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS DSM-IV ALCOHOL-INDUCED DISORDERS 303.00 Alcohol intoxication 291.81 Alcohol withdrawal 291.89 Alcohol-induced mood disorder 291.89 Alcohol-induced anxiety disorder 292.81 Intoxication delirium Alcohol is a CNS depressant drug that is used socially in our society for many reasons (e.g., to  enhance the flavor of food, to encourage relaxation and conviviality, for feelings of celebration, and as a  sacred   ritual   in   some   religious   ceremonies).   Therapeutically,   it   is   the   major   ingredient   in   many  OTC / prescription   medications.   It   can   be   harmless,   enjoyable,   and   sometimes   beneficial   when   used  responsibly and in moderation. Like other mind-altering drugs, however, it has the potential for abuse and,  in fact, is the most widely abused drug in the United States (research suggests 5% to 10% of the adult  population) and is potentially fatal. Frequently, the client in a residential care setting has been using alcohol  in conjunction with other drugs. It is believed that alcohol is often used by clients who have other mental  illnesses to assuage the pain they feel. The term “dual diagnosis” is used to mean an association between  the use/abuse of drugs (including alcohol) and other psychiatric diagnoses. It may be difficult to determine  cause and effect in any given situation to determine an accurate diagnosis. However, it is important to  recognize when both conditions are present so that the often-overwhelming problems of treatment are  instituted for both conditions. This plan of care addresses acute intoxication/withdrawal and is to be used in conjunction with CP:  Substance Dependence/Abuse Rehabilitation. ETIOLOGICAL THEORIES Psychodynamics The individual remains fixed in a lower level of development, with retarded ego and weak superego.  The person retains a highly dependent nature, with characteristics of poor impulse control, low frustration  tolerance, and low self-esteem. Biological Enzymes, genes, brain chemistry, and hormones create and contribute to an individual’s response to  alcohol. The two types of alcohol-related disorders are (1) familial, which is largely inherited, and (2)  acquired. A childhood history of attention-deficit disorder or conduct disorder also increases a child’s risk  of becoming alcoholic. Certain physiological changes also may cause addiction to alcohol, or alcoholism.
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