ATTENTION_DEFICIT_HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

ATTENTION_DEFICIT_HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER -...

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ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) DSM-IV 314.00 ADHD predominantly inattentive type 314.01 ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type 314.01 ADHD combined type 314.9 ADHD NOS This disorder is associated with inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive behavior that is maladaptive  and inconsistent with developmental level. This behavior creates clinically significant impairment in social/ academic   functioning.   Accurate   diagnosis   is   difficult,   as   symptoms   resemble   depression,   learning  disabilities, or emotional problems. The diagnosis is made through extensive observation of the child’s  behavior; however, contact with health professionals is limited and the child’s activity may be misleading  during short office visits. Reports from parents and teachers are often used to make the diagnosis, and their  observations may be distorted, as they assume a problem exists and often predetermine the diagnosis  themselves. ETIOLOGICAL THEORIES Psychodynamics The child with this disorder has impaired ego development. Ego development is retarded and  manifested   impulsive behavior  represents  unchecked   id  impulses,  as  in  severe  temper  tantrums.  Repeated performance failure, failure to attend to social cues, and limited impulse control reinforce  low self-esteem. Some theories suggest that the child is fixed in the symbiotic phase of development  and has not differentiated self from mother. Genetic/Biological The disorder may be gender-linked as the incidence is higher in boys than in girls (3:1). ADHD is also  more prevalent among children whose siblings have been diagnosed with the same disorder. Recent studies  have established that the fathers of hyperactive children are more likely to be alcoholic or to have antisocial  personality disorders. Affected children have shown the presence of subtle chromosomal changes and mild  neurological deficits with irregular brain function including too little activity in the area that inhibits  impulsiveness. Hyperactivity may result from fetal alcohol syndrome, congenital infections, and brain  damage resulting from birth trauma or hypoxia. Cognitive distractibility and impulsivity are associated  with other disorders involving brain damage or dysfunction, such as mental retardation, seizure disorder,  and brain lesions. Physiological conditions that can mimic the symptoms include constipation, hypoglycemia, lead  toxicity, and thyroid and other metabolic diseases.
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ATTENTION_DEFICIT_HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER -...

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