CANCER - CANCER Cancer is a general term used to describe a...

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CANCER Cancer is a general term used to describe a disturbance of cellular growth and refers to a group of diseases and not a single disease entity. There are currently more than 150 different known types of cancer. Because cancer is a cellular disease, it can arise from any body tissue, with manifestations that result from failure to control the proliferation and maturation of cells. There are four main classifications of cancer according to tissue type: (1) lymphomas (cancers originating in infection-fighting organs), (2) leukemias (cancers originating in blood-forming organs), (3) sarcomas (cancers originating in bones, muscle, or connective tissue), and (4) carcinomas (cancers originating in epithelial cells). Within these broad categories, a cancer is classified by histology, stage, and grade. Through years of observation and documentation, it has been noted that the metastatic behavior of cancers varies according to the primary site of diagnosis. This behavior pattern is known as the “natural history.” An example is the metastatic pattern for primary breast cancer: breast-bone-lung-liver-brain. Knowledge of the etiology and natural history of a cancer type is important in planning the patient’s care and in evaluating the patient’s progress, prognosis, and physical complaints. CARE SETTING Cancer centers may focus on staging and major treatment modalities for complex cancers. Treatment for managing adverse effects such as malnutrition and infection may take place in short-stay, ambulatory, or community settings. More cancer patients are receiving care at home because of personal choice and healthcare costs. RELATED CONCERNS Fecal diversion: postoperative care of ileostomy and colostomy Hysterectomy Leukemias Lung cancer: surgical intervention Lymphomas Mastectomy Prostatectomy Psychosocial aspects of care Radical neck surgery—laryngectomy: postoperative care Sepsis/Septicemia Total nutritional support Urinary diversion/Urostomy Patient Assessment Database Depends on organs/tissues involved and stage of disease. Refer to appropriate plans of care for additional assessment information. ACTIVITY/REST May report: Weakness and/or fatigue Changes in rest pattern and usual hours of sleep per night; presence of factors affecting sleep, e.g., pain, anxiety, night sweats Limitations of participation in hobbies, exercise, usual activities CIRCULATION May report: Palpitations, chest pain on exertion May exhibit: Changes in BP, fluctuations in heart rate EGO INTEGRITY May report: Stress factors (financial, job, role changes) and ways of handling stress (e.g., smoking, drinking, delay in seeking treatment, religious/spiritual belief)
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Concern about changes in appearance, e.g., alopecia, disfiguring lesions, surgery, profound weight loss Denial of diagnosis, feelings of powerlessness, hopelessness, helplessness, worthlessness, guilt, loss of control, depression May exhibit: Denial, withdrawal, anger ELIMINATION May report: Changes in bowel pattern, e.g., blood in stools, pain with defecation, constipation
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CANCER - CANCER Cancer is a general term used to describe a...

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