GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER - GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER...

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GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER DSM-IV 300.02 Generalized anxiety disorder Although some degree of anxiety is normal in life’s stresses, anxiety can be adaptive or maladaptive.  Problems arise when the client has coping mechanisms that are inadequate to deal with the danger, which  may be recognized or unrecognized. The essential feature of this inadequacy is unrealistic or excessive  anxiety and worries about life circumstances. Anxiety disorders are the most common of all major groups  of mental disorders in the United States, sharing comorbidity with major depression and substance abuse,  increasing the client’s risk of suicide. ETIOLOGICAL THEORIES Psychodynamics The Freudian view involves conflict between demands of the id and superego, with the ego serving as  mediator. Anxiety occurs when the ego is not strong enough to resolve the conflict. Sullivanian theory  states that fear of disapproval from the mothering figure is the basis for anxiety. Conditional love results in  a fragile ego and lack of self-confidence. The individual with anxiety disorder has low self-esteem, fears  failure, and is easily threatened. Dollard and Miller (1950) believe anxiety is a learned response based on an innate drive to avoid pain.  Anxiety results from being faced with two competing drives or goals. Cognitive theory suggests that there is a disturbance in the central  mechanism of cognition or  information processing with the consequent disturbance in feeling and behavior. Anxiety is maintained by  this  distorted   thinking  with  mistaken   or  dysfunctional   appraisal   of  a  situation.   The  individual   feels  vulnerable, and the distorted thinking results in a negative outcome. Biological Although biological and neurophysiological influences in the etiology of anxiety disorders have been  investigated, no relationship has yet been established. However, there does seem to be a genetic influence  with a high family incidence. The autonomic nervous system discharge that occurs in response to a frightening impulse and/or  emotion is mediated by the limbic system, resulting in the peripheral effects of the autonomic nervous  system seen in the presence of anxiety. Some medical conditions have been associated with anxiety and panic disorders, such as abnormalities  in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, acute myocardial infarction,  pheochromocytomas, substance intoxication and withdrawal, hypoglycemia, caffeine intoxication, mitral  valve prolapse, and complex partial seizures.
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course PNR 182 taught by Professor Toole during the Spring '10 term at Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical College.

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GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER - GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER...

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