is a widespread inflammation of the liver that results in degeneration and necrosis of liver cells. Inflammation
of the liver can be due to bacterial invasion, injury by physical or toxic chemical agents (e.g., drugs, alcohol, industrial
chemicals), viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G), or autoimmune response. Although most hepatitis is self-
limiting, approximately 20% of acute hepatitis B and 50% of hepatitis C cases progress to a chronic state or cirrhosis
and can be fatal.
Usually at the community level. In toxic states, brief inpatient acute care on a medical unit may be required.
Alcohol: acute withdrawal
Cirrhosis of the liver
Psychosocial aspects of care
Substance dependence/abuse rehabilitation
Total nutritional support: parenteral/enteral feeding
Patient Assessment Database
Data depend on the cause and severity of liver involvement/damage.
Fatigue, weakness, general malaise
Bradycardia (severe hyperbilirubinemia)
Jaundiced sclera, skin, mucous membranes
Diarrhea/constipation; clay-colored stools
Loss of appetite (anorexia), weight loss or gain (edema)
Irritability, drowsiness, lethargy, asterixis
Abdominal cramping, right upper quadrant (RUQ) tenderness
Myalgias, arthralgias; headache
Muscle guarding, restlessness
Distaste for/aversion to cigarettes (smokers)
Recent flulike URI