MAJOR DEPRESSION_DYSTHYMIC DISORDER

MAJOR DEPRESSION_DYSTHYMIC DISORDER - MAJOR...

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MAJOR DEPRESSION/DYSTHYMIC DISORDER DSM-IV DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS 296.xx Major depressive disorder 296.2x Single episode 296.3x Recurrent 300.4 Dysthymic disorder 311 Depressive disorder NOS A disturbance of mood, characterized by a full or partial depressive syndrome, or loss of interest or  pleasure in usual activities and pastimes with evidence of interference in social / occupational functioning. ETIOLOGICAL THEORIES Psychodynamics Psychoanalytical   theory   focuses   on   an   early   unsatisfactory   parent / child   relationship,   with   an  unresolved grieving process. This results in the individual remaining fixed in the anger stage of the  grieving process and turning it inward on the self. The ego remains weak, while the superego expands and  becomes punitive. Cognitive theory projects a belief that depression occurs as a result of impaired cognition, fostering a  negative evaluation of self through disturbed thought processes. The individual is pessimistic and views  self as inadequate and worthless and life as hopeless. Learning theorists propose that depressive illness arises out of the individual’s having experienced  numerous failures (either real or perceived). A feeling of inability to succeed at any endeavor ensues. This  “learned helplessness” is viewed as a predisposition to depressive illness. The behavioral model states that  the cause of depression is in the person-behavior-environment interaction. Although people are seen as  capable of exercising control over their behavior, they are not totally free of environmental influence. Biological A family history of major affective disorders may exist in individuals with depressive disorders.  Recently it has been found that the disease has a genetic marker, as shown by numerous studies that  support the involvement of heredity in depressive illness. Biochemical factors (e.g., electrolyte imbalances) appear to play a role in depressive illness. An error in  metabolism results in the transposition of sodium and potassium within the neuron. Another theory implicates the  biogenic amines norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. The levels of these chemicals are deficient in  individuals with depressive disorders. Controversy remains as to whether these biochemical changes  cause  the  depression or whether they are  caused by  the illness. In recent years, a common form of major depression called  seasonal affective disorder  (SAD) has been identified. Recurring each year, starting in fall or winter and ending in  spring, the symptoms are largely typical of depression, with some atypical symptoms (excessive sleep, increased  appetite, and weight gain). This disorder is believed to be caused by the decreased availability of sunlight and is 
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course PNR 182 taught by Professor Toole during the Spring '10 term at Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical College.

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MAJOR DEPRESSION_DYSTHYMIC DISORDER - MAJOR...

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