POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER - POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS...

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POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER DSM-IV 309.81 Posttraumatic stress disorder (specify acute, chronic, or delayed onset) 308.3 Acute stress disorder An   anxiety   disorder  resulting   from   exposure   to  a  traumatic   event   in  which   the  individual   has  experienced, witnessed, or been confronted with an event or events that involve actual or threatened  death/serious injury or a threat to the physical integrity of the self or others. The individual’s response  involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. (A thorough physical examination should be done to rule out  neurological organic problems.) Additionally, a newly recognized phenomenon is the development of  PTSD-like symptoms in some individuals who have been involved over a long period of time in the  treatment of (or living with) clients with PTSD. ETIOLOGICAL THEORIES Psychodynamics The client’s ego has experienced a severe trauma, often perceived as a threat to physical integrity or  self-concept. This results in severe anxiety, which is not controlled adequately by the ego and is manifested  in symptomatic behavior. Because the ego is vulnerable, the superego may become punitive and cause the  individual to assume guilt for traumatic occurrence; the id may assume dominance, resulting in impulsive,  uncontrollable behavior. Biological (Refer to CP: Generalized Anxiety Disorder.) Some studies have revealed abnormalities in the storage, release, and elimination of catecholamines  affecting   function   of   the   brain   in   the   region   of   the   locus   coeruleus,   amygdala,   and   hippocampus.  Hypersensitivity in the locus coeruleus may lead to “learned helplessness.” The amygdala appears to be the  storehouse for memories, while the hippocampus provides narrative coherence and a location in time and  space. Hyperactivation in the amygdala may prevent the brain from making coherent sense of its memories  resulting in the memories being stored as nightmares, flashbacks, and physical symptoms. Research is exploring the possibility of a genetic vulnerability including the belief that neurological  disturbances in the womb or during childhood may influence the development of PTSD. Family Dynamics (Refer to CP: Generalized Anxiety Disorder.) Types of formal education, family life, and lifestyle are significant forecasters of PTSD. Below  average or lack of success in education, negative parenting behaviors, and parental poverty have been  identified as predictors for development of PTSD, as well as for peritraumatic dissociation. Current research also suggests that the effects of severe trauma may last for generations, meaning 
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POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER - POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS...

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