PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER

PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER - PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC...

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PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER (Premenstrual Syndrome) DSM-IV Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (provided for further study) Recommended for further systematic clinical study and research, Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder  (popularly called PMS) is characterized by multiple symptom clusters occurring during the menstrual  cycle, becoming progressively disabling. Some research suggests these symptoms may be a delayed effect  of hormonal changes earlier in the menstrual cycle, or the result of an independent cyclical mood disorder  that is synchronized with the menstrual cycle. Although the physical symptoms produce discomfort, the  mood change or premenstrual  negative affect  symptoms are often more distressing, interfering with  familial, social, and work-related activities. The condition usually improves after the onset of menses;  however, for some women, symptoms persist through and after menses. The symptoms cannot result solely  from cyclic or environmental stress but may be enhanced by these stressors. This diagnosis is not used  when the person is experiencing a late luteal phase exacerbation of another disorder, such as major  depression, panic disorder, or dysthymia. ETIOLOGICAL THEORIES Psychodynamics Although etiology is not understood, symptoms are believed to be related to the interaction of  psychological, social, and biological factors. Underlying personality and psychiatric conditions contribute  to how any particular individual deals with these physical problems. An individual’s past and present  negative   attitudes   toward   menstruation   are   likely   to   influence   the   symptomatology   of   Premenstrual  Dysphoric   Disorder.   Emotion   is   the   result   of   complex   interactions   between   hormonal   changes   and  cognitive variables. Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle are likely to increase the female’s  susceptibility to negative psychological experiences rather than to cause such experiences. Biological Although not completely understood, it may be related to the alterations (fluctuations) in estrogen and  progesterone   and   the   fluid-retaining   action   of   estrogen   during   the   menstrual   cycle.   Estrogen  excess / deficiency, progresterone deficiency, vitamin deficiency, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention have all  been proposed to contribute to Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. In addition, levels of androgen, adrenal  hormones, and prolactin have been hypothesized to be important in the etiology of this syndrome. Finally,  an increase in prostaglandins secreted by the uterine musculature has been implicated in accounting for the  pain associated with this disorder. Family Dynamics
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course PNR 182 taught by Professor Toole during the Spring '10 term at Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical College.

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PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER - PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC...

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