Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS (PRIMARY CARBONIC ACID DEFICIT) Respiratory alkalosis is a loss of carbon dioxide (P CO 2 < 35 mm Hg) with a resultant decrease of carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) due to a marked increase in the rate of respirations. The two primary mechanisms that trigger hyperventilation are (1) hypoxemia and (2) direct stimulation of the central respiratory center of the brain (such as occur with high fever, head trauma/CNS lesions, early salicylate intoxication). Compensatory mechanisms include decreased respiratory rate (if the body is able to respond to the drop in Pa CO 2 ), increased renal excretion of bicarbonate, and retention of hydrogen. It is the most frequently occurring acid-base imbalance in hospitalized patients, with the elderly at increased risk because of high incidence of pulmonary disorders and alterations in neurological status. CARE SETTING This condition does not occur in isolation, but rather is a complication of a broader problem and usually requires inpatient care in a medical/surgical or subacute unit. RELATED CONCERNS Plans of care specific to predisposing factors, e.g.: Anemias (iron deficiency, pernicious, aplastic, hemolytic) Cirrhosis of the liver Craniocerebral trauma Hyperthyroidism Fluid and electrolyte imbalances Heart failure: chronic Pneumonia: microbial Sepsis/septicemia Ventilatory assistance (mechanical) OTHER CONCERNS Metabolic acidosis Metabolic alkalosis Patient Assessment Database Dependent on underlying cause. CIRCULATION May report: History/presence of anemia Palpitations May exhibit: Hypotension Tachycardia, irregular pulse/dysrhythmias EGO INTEGRITY May exhibit: Extreme anxiety (most common cause of hyperventilation) FOOD/FLUID May report: Dry mouth Nausea/vomiting May exhibit: Abdominal distension (elevating diaphragm as with ascites, pregnancy) Vomiting NEUROSENSORY May report: Headache, tinnitus
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 4


This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online