SCHIZOPHRENIA - DSMIV SCHIZOPHRENIA 295.30 Paranoid type...

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DSM-IV SCHIZOPHRENIA 295.30 Paranoid type 295.10 Disorganized type 295.20 Catatonic type 295.90 Undifferentiated type 295.60 Residual type (Refer to DSM-IV for other listings.) Schizophrenia describes psychotic state that at some time is characterized  by apathy, avolition,  asociality, affective blunting, and alogia. The client has alterations in thoughts, percepts, mood, and  behavior. Subjective experiences of disordered thought are manifested in disturbances of concept formation  that sometimes lead to misinterpretations of reality, delusions (particularly delusions of influence and ideas  of reference), and hallucinations. Mood changes include ambivalence, constriction or inappropriateness of  feeling, and loss of empathy with others. Behavior may be withdrawn, regressive, or bizarre (Shader,  1994). ETIOLOGICAL THEORIES Psychodynamics Psychosis is the result of a weak ego. The development of the ego has been inhibited by a symbiotic  parent / child relationship. Because the ego is weak, the use of ego defense mechanisms in times of extreme  anxiety is maladaptive, and behaviors are often representations of the id segment of the personality. Biological Certain genetic factors may be involved in the susceptibility to develop some forms of this psychotic  disorder. Individuals are at higher risk for the disorder if there is a familial pattern of involvement (parents,  siblings, other relatives). Schizophrenia has been determined to be a sporadic illness (which means genes  cannot currently be followed from generation to generation). It is an autosomal dominant trait. However,  most scientists agree that what is inherited is a vulnerability or predisposition, which may be due to an  enzyme defect or some other biochemical abnormality, a subtle neurological deficit, or some other factor or  combination   of   factors.   This   predisposition,   in   combination   with   environmental   factors,   results   in  development of the disease. Some research implies that these disorders may be a birth defect, occurring in  the hippocampus region of the brain. The studies show a disordering of the pyramidal cells in the brains of  schizophrenics, while the cells in the brains of nonschizophrenic individuals appear to be arranged in an  orderly fashion. Ventricular brain ratio (VBR) or disproportionately small brain (or specific areas of the  brain) may be inherited and / or congenital. The cause can be a virus, lack of oxygen, birth trauma, severe  maternal malnutrition, or cellular damage resulting from an RhD immune response (mother negative / fetus  positive). A biochemical theory suggests the involvement of elevated levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, 
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course PNR 182 taught by Professor Toole during the Spring '10 term at Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical College.

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SCHIZOPHRENIA - DSMIV SCHIZOPHRENIA 295.30 Paranoid type...

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