Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
SPINAL CORD INJURY (ACUTE REHABILITATIVE PHASE) The leading causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) include motor vehicle crashes, falls, acts of violence, and sporting injuries. The mechanism of injury influences the type of SCI and the degree of neurological deficit. Spinal cord lesions are classified as a complete (total loss of sensation and voluntary motor function) or incomplete (mixed loss of sensation and voluntary motor function). Physical findings vary, depending on the level of injury, degree of spinal shock, and phase and degree of recovery, but in general, are classified as follows: C-1 to C-3: Tetraplegia with total loss of muscular/respiratory function. C-4 to C-5: Tetraplegia with impairment, poor pulmonary capacity, complete dependency for ADLs. C-6 to C-7: Tetraplegia with some arm/hand movement allowing some independence in ADLs. C-7 to T-1: Tetraplegia with limited use of thumb/fingers, increasing independence. T-2 to L-1: Paraplegia with intact arm function and varying function of intercostal and abdominal muscles. L-1 to L-2 or below: Mixed motor-sensory loss; bowel and bladder dysfunction. CARE SETTING Inpatient medical/surgical and subacute/rehabilitation units. RELATED CONCERNS Disc surgery Fractures Pneumonia: microbial Psychosocial aspects of care Thrombophlebitis: deep vein thrombosis Total nutritional support: parenteral/enteral feeding Upper gastrointestinal/esophageal bleeding Ventilatory assistance (mechanical) Patient Assessment Database ACTIVITY/REST May exhibit: Paralysis of muscles (flaccid during spinal shock) at/below level of lesion Muscle/generalized weakness (cord contusion and compression) CIRCULATION May report: Palpitations Dizziness with position changes May exhibit: Low BP, postural BP changes, bradycardia Cool, pale extremities Absence of perspiration in affected area ELIMINATION May exhibit: Incontinence of bladder and bowel Urinary retention Abdominal distension; loss of bowel sounds Melena, coffee-ground emesis/hematemesis EGO INTEGRITY May report: Denial, disbelief, sadness, anger May exhibit: Fear, anxiety, irritability, withdrawal FOOD/FLUID May exhibit: Abdominal distension; loss of bowel sounds (paralytic ileus)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
HYGIENE May exhibit: Variable level of dependence in ADLs NEUROSENSORY May report: Absence of sensation below area of injury, or opposite side sensation Numbness, tingling, burning, twitching of arms/legs May exhibit: Flaccid paralysis (spasticity may develop as spinal shock resolves, depending on area of cord involvement) Loss of sensation (varying degrees may return after spinal shock resolves) Loss of muscle/vasomotor tone Loss of/asymmetrical reflexes, including deep tendon reflexes Changes in pupil reaction, ptosis of upper eyelid Loss of sweating in affected area PAIN/DISCOMFORT May report: Pain/tenderness in muscles Hyperesthesia immediately above level of injury May exhibit: Vertebral tenderness, deformity RESPIRATION May report: Shortness of breath, “air hunger,” inability to breathe
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 26


This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online