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STIMULANTS (AMPHETAMINES, COCAINE, CAFFEINE, AND NICOTINE) AND INHALANT- RELATED DISORDERS DSM-IV AMPHETAMINE-INDUCED DISORDERS 292.81 Intoxication delirium 292.89 Amphetamine intoxication 292.0 Amphetamine withdrawal 292.11 Psychotic disorders with delusions 292.12 Psychotic disorders with hallucinations CAFFEINE-INDUCED DISORDERS 305.90 Caffeine intoxication 292.89 Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder 292.89 Caffeine-induced sleep disorder COCAINE-INDUCED DISORDERS 292.89 Cocaine intoxication 292.0 Cocaine withdrawal 292.81 Intoxication delirium INHALANT-INDUCED DISORDERS 292.89 Inhalant intoxication 292.81 Inhalant intoxication delirium 292.84 Inhalant-induced mood disorder 292.89 Inhalant-induced anxiety disorder NICOTINE-INDUCED DISORDER 292.0 Nicotine withdrawal (For additional listings, consult DSM-IV. ) Stimulants are natural and manufactured drugs that speed up the nervous system. They can be  swallowed, injected, inhaled, or smoked. These substances are identified by the behavioral stimulation and  psychomotor agitation that they induce. They differ widely in their molecular structures and in their  mechanisms of action. The most prevalent and widely used stimulants are caffeine and nicotine. Caffeine is  readily available as a common ingredient in coffee, tea, colas, and chocolate. Nicotine is a primary  substance in tobacco products. These are generally accepted as a part of our culture, are not usually seen in  overdose situations, and are included here for information only. Other more potent stimulants (e.g.,  cocaine, amphetamines, and nonamphetamine stimulants) are regulated by the Controlled Substance Act.  They are available for therapeutic purposes by prescription but are also widely available on the illicit drug  market. The potential for overdose and even death is high. Inhalant substances such as gasoline, glue, paint / paint thinners, spray paints, cleaning compounds, and  correction fluid, to name a few, are not classified as stimulants; however, the intoxicating effects of these  products and their therapeutic interventions are similar and therefore addressed here. This plan of care addresses acute intoxication / withdrawal and is to be used in conjunction with CP:  Substance Dependence / Abuse Rehabilitation. ETIOLOGICAL THEORIES Psychodynamics
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Individuals who abuse substances fail to complete tasks of separation-individuation, resulting in  underdeveloped egos. The person retains a highly dependent nature, with characteristics of poor impulse  control,   low   frustration   tolerance,   and   low   self-esteem,   low   social   conformity,   neurotocism,   and  introversion.   The  superego   is  weak,   resulting   in   absence   of  guilt   feelings   for  behavior.   Underlying 
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