CH12 2008 Zumdahl Web

CH12 2008 Zumdahl Web - Chapter12 Atoms:TheQuantumWorld...

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Chapter 12: Atoms: The Quantum World KEY POINTS Electromagnetic Radiation Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals Electron Configurations Periodic Properties
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nucleus
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Fundamental Particles Particle Mass (amu ) Charge Electron 0.00054858 -1 Proton 1.0073 +1 Neutron 1.0087 0
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The Discovery of Electrons Thomson: Cathode ray tubes experiments; late 1800’s & early 1900’s.
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Mass Number and Isotopes The mass number (A) is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons. Z = proton number N = neutron number A = Z + N A common symbolism used to show mass and proton numbers is: 12 48 197 6 20 79 A Z Ex. C Ca E Au
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The Atomic Weight Scale and Atomic Weights Example : Naturally occurring chromium consists of four isotopes. It is: 4.31% 50 Cr, mass = 49.946 amu 83.76% 52 Cr, mass = 51.941 amu 9.55% 53 Cr, mass = 52.941 amu 2.38% 54 Cr, mass = 53.939 amu Calculate the atomic weight of chromium.
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Electromagnetic Radiation Molecules interact with electromagnetic radiation. Molecules can absorb and emit light. Once a molecule has absorbed light (energy), the molecule can: 1. Rotate 2. Translate 3. Vibrate 4. Electronic transition
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Electromagnetic radiation: oscillating electric and magnetic fields Wavelength λ λ
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Frequency
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Electromagnetic Spectrum
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Energy/wavelength/frequency E λ ν c = νλ c = 3.00 x 10 8 m/sec, a constant! h = 6.626 x 10 -34 J sec, a constant! E = h ν = hc λ
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Example 1) What is the wavelength ( λ ) of light with a frequency ( ν ) of 2.73 x 10 16 /sec? Ex. 2) Calculate the energy (E) of a photon with a frequency ( ν ) of 2.73 x 10 16 /s. Useful equations: c = ν λ c = 3.00 x 10 8 m/sec h = 6.626 x 10 -34 J sec E = h ν = h c λ
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“Black Body”: emits a wide range wavelengths intensity depends on temperature
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Oscillations of Atoms/Molecules C O H H C O H H h v .
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Photoelectric effect (vary λ )
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“work function” for different metals
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Uncertainty Principle: Location vs. Momentum Both the momentum and location of a particle can’t be defined at the same time electrons in orbitals
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Quantum Mechanics 1      2         3 * * = an electron
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Schrodinger equation: how to calculate wavefunctions for electrons
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Schrodinger’s Equation -h 2 d 2 Ψ + V(x) Ψ = E Ψ 2m dx 2 (A differential equation… Each solution is one atomic orbital in terms of an energy state!) Ψ is the wavefunction. It is a mathematical description of the motion of an electron in terms of time and position.
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Wavefunctions” What are wavefunctions? Ψ Ψ : a function of the coordinates x,y,z of electron’s position in three dimensional space; gives no real information about movement of electron one wavefunction = one solution to Schrodinger’s equation = one orbital Ψ 2 : probability of finding a particle in a specific place
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Functions are used to describe behaviors or properties in mathematical terms What are the functions to describe the velocity and position of a Junior Mint dropped from the UT Tower?
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CH12 2008 Zumdahl Web - Chapter12 Atoms:TheQuantumWorld...

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