CH13 I Zumdahl for Web 2008 [Compatibility Mode]

CH13 I Zumdahl for Web 2008 [Compatibility Mode] - CHAPTER...

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HAPTER 13 Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 13-I Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Formation of Ionic Compounds Formation of Covalent Bonds ewis Formulas for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions Lewis Formulas for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions Writing Lewis Formulas: The Octet Rule Resonance Writing Lewis Formulas: Limitations of the Octet Rule Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Dipole Moments The Continuous Range of Bonding Types
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Two types of bonds: o Ionic bonding results from electrostatic attractions among ions, which are formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. o Covalent bonding results from sharing one or more electron pairs between two atoms. o ( Metallic bonding in Chapter 16!)
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Covalent Ionic • Sharing of electrons • Transfer of electrons etwork of cations and • Atoms with similar electronegativities • Network of cations and anions etals (left) with non • Atoms achieve pseudo-noble onfigurations • Metals (left) with non- metals (right) toms achieve pseudo configurations • Octet rule to create ewis dot structures • Atoms achieve pseudo- noble configurations trong interactions due Lewis dot structures Strong interactions due to large electrostatic forces (+/-)
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Covalent: “Sharing” Ionic: “Transfer”
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Electronegativities
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ewis Dot Formulas Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms s A p p A p
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. H H 1s 1 H .
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Lewis Dot Formulas .. . He H Be B C N O F Ne . . . . . . . . Li Be B C N O F . . . .
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• Elements that are in the same periodic group have the same Lewis dot structures. Li & Na . . N & P .. . . . . F & Cl . . . . . .
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nic Bonding Ionic Bonding Formation of Ionic Compounds •A n ion is an atom or a group of atoms possessing a net electrical charge. Ions come in two basic types: . ositive (+) ions or cations 1. positive () ions or cations 2. negative (-) ions or anions ± Metals react with non-metals ± Cations bind to anions
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• Ionic compounds form extended three dimensional arrays of oppositely charged ions. nic compounds have high melting points • Ionic compounds have high melting points because the coulomb force , which holds ionic compounds together, is strong. Remember: formula units, not molecules!
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eaction of Group IA Metals with Reaction of Group IA Metals with Group VIIA Nonmetals IA metal VIIA nometal (s) 2(g) (s) eta V o eta 2 Na Cl 2 NaCl +→ o solid gas with an 842 C melting point Why not write it as: Na + Cl Æ NaCl
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ormation of Ionic Compounds: Formation of Ionic Compounds: electron configurations • electron configurations of Na and Cl. s s p 2s 3s 3p Na ↑↓ l Cl ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ These atoms form ions with these configurations : Na + ↑↓ same configuration as [Ne] Cl - ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ same configuration as [Ar]
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What are the energetics of nic bond formation? ionic bond formation?
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CH13 I Zumdahl for Web 2008 [Compatibility Mode] - CHAPTER...

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